The Vertebrates A-M


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Abbott, EA (1884), Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions. Republished at as of 4/20/02. Neoselachii Overview.

Adriaens, D & W Verraes (1997), The ontogeny of the chondrocranium in Clarias gariepinus: trends in siluroids. J. Fish Biol.50: 1221-1257. WWW.  Cladoselachida.

Adriaens, D & W Verraes (1998), Osteology of the osteocranium in the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell (1822) (Siluriformes: Clariidae): ossification sequence as a response to functional demands. J. Morphol. 235: 183-237. WWW. Dermosphenotic, Siluriphysi.

Ahlberg , PE 1995), Elginerpeton pancheni and the earliest tetrapod clade. Nature, 373: 420-425. ElginerpetonidaeElginerpeton, Obruchevichthys, Tetrapoda, Ventastega.

Ahlberg, PE 1998), Postcranial stem tetrapod remains from the Devonian of Scat Craig, Morayshire, Scotland. Zool. J. Linn. Soc.122: 99-141.  Acanthostega, Elginerpeton, Ichthyostega, Tetrapoda

Ahlberg, PE (1999), Something fishy in the family tree. Nature 397: 564-565. Osteichthyes.

Ahlberg, PE (2004), Comment on "The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus." Science305: 1715c. Elginerpeton.

Ahlberg, PE & JA Clack (1998), Lower jaws, lower tetrapods -- a review based on the Devonian genus Acanthostega. Trans. Roy. Soc. (Edinburgh), Earth Sci., 89: 11-46. Acanthostega, Baphetes; Baphetidae, Crocodyliformes, Ichthyostega, Loxomma, Megalocephalus, Metaxygnathus, Obruchevichthys, Panderichthys, Tetrapoda, Ventastega.

Ahlberg, PE & Z Johanson 1997), Second tristichopterid (Sarcopterygii, Osteolepiformes) from the Upper Devonian of Canowindra, New South Wales, Australia, and phylogeny of the Tristichopteridae. J. Vert. Paleontol. 17: 653-673. Cabonnichthys, Osteolepiformes, Tristichopteridae.

Ahlberg, PE & Z Johanson 1998) Osteolepiforms and the ancestry of tetrapods. Nature395: 792-794. Osteolepiformes.

Ahlberg, PE & E Luksevics (2004) New light on the Devonian tetrapod Ventastega curonica. 10th Intl. Symp. Early Vert. Lower Vert., p. 10 (abstr). Elginerpeton, Tetrapoda, Ventastega.

Ahlberg, PE & AR Milner (1994), The origin and early diversification of tetrapods. Nature368: 507-514. Elpistostegalia, Osteolepiformes.

Ahlberg, PE, JA Clack & E Lukševičs 1996), Rapid braincase evolution between Panderichthyesand the earliest tetrapods. Nature381: 61-64. Panderichthys, Tetrapoda

Ahlberg, PE, M Friedman & H Blom (2005), New light on the earliest known tetrapod jaw. J. Vert. Paleontol.25: 720-724. Elginerpeton.

Ahlberg, PE, E Lukševics & E Mark-Kurik (2000), A near-tetrapod from the Baltic Middle Devonian. Palaeontology43: 533-548. Elpistostegalia, Livoniana, Osteolepiformes.

Albanesi, GL & CP Barnes (2000), Subspeciation within a punctuated equilibrium evolutionary event: phylogenetic history of the Lower-Middle Ordovician Paroistodus originalis- P. horriduscomplex (Conodonta). J. Paleontol.74: 492-502. Conodonta

Albino, AM (2000), New record of snakes from the Cretaceous of Patagonia (Argentina). Geodiversitas 22: 247-253. Madtsoiidae

Alcober, O (2000), Redescription of the skull of Saurosuchus galilei(Archosauria: Rauisuchidae) J. Vert. Paleontol.20: 302-316. Poposauridae, Rauisuchidae, Saurosuchus.

Anderson, HM & JM Anderson (1970), A preliminary review of the biostratigraphy of the Uppemost Permian, Triassic, and Lowermost Jurassic of Gondwanaland. Paleontol. Afr.13(suppl.): 1-22. Uranocentradon.

Anderson, LC & PD Roopnarine (2005) Role of constraint and selection in the morphologic evolution of Caryocorbula(Mollusca: Corbulidae) from the Caribbean Neogene. Palaeont. Elec.8: 32A, 18pp. WWW. Holopterygius.

Anderson, JM & ARI Cruikshank (1978), The Biostratigraphy of the Permian and Triassic, Part 5, a review of the classification and distribution of Permo-Triassic Tetrapods, Paleontol. Afr.21: 15-44. Laccocephalus.

Andrews, SM (1973), Interrelationships of crossopterygians inPH Greenwood, RS Miles & C Patterson [eds.], Interrelationships of Fishes. Zool. J. Linn. Soc.53(supp.1): 137-177. Onychodontiformes, Onychodus, Strunius.

Andrews, SM & TS Westoll (1970), The postcranial skeleton of Eusthenopteron foordiWhiteaves. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin.68: 207–329. Acanthostega, Eusthenopteron.

Andrews, SM & TS Westoll 1970a), The postcranial skeleton of rhipidistian fishes excluding Eusthenopteron. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin.68: 391–489 (1970). Eusthenopteron, Megalichthyidae, Osteolepididae, Osteolepiformes, Rhizodontiformes, Tristichopteridae.

Archibald, JD, AO Averianov & EG Ekdale, (2001), Late Cretaceous relatives of rabbits, rodents, and other extant eutherian mammals. Nature414: 62-65. Eutheria, Glires, Zalambdalestidae.

Arcucci, AB (1997), Dinosauromorpha in Currie, PJ and K Padian (eds.), Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs.Academic Press, pp. 179-183. Dinosauromorpha, Lagerpeton, Lagosuchidae.

Arcucci, AB & CA Marsicano (1998), A distictive new archosaur from the Middle Triassic (Los Chañares Formation) of Argentina. J. Vert. Paleontol.18: 228-232. Tarjadia

Arnason, U & A Janke (2002), Mitogenomic analyses of eutherian relationships, Cytogenet. Genome Res.96: 20-32. Insectivora.

Arnason, U, JA Adegoke, K Bodin, EW Born, YB Esa, A Gullberg, M Nilsson, RV Short, X-F Xu, & A Janke (2002), Mammalian mitogenomic relationships and the root of the eutherian tree, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99: 8151-8156. Insectivora.

Arnason, U, A Gulberg & A Janke (1998), Molecular timing of primate divergences as estimated by two nonprimate calibration points. J. Mol. Evol.47:718–727  Hippomorpha.

Asher, RJ, MC McKenna, RJ Emry, AR Tabrum & DG Kron 2002), Morphology and relationships of Apternodusand other extinct, zalambdodont placental mammals, Bul. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. #273: 117 pp. Apternodontidae, Chrysochloroidea, Insectivora, Micropternodontidae, Oligoryctidae, Palaeoryctidae, Parapternodontidae, Solenodontidae, Soricidae, Soricinae, Soricomorpha, Tenrecoidea.

Averianov, AO (2000), Mammals from the Mesozoic of Kirgizstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Tadzhikistan in MJ Benton, MA Shishkin, DM Unwin & EN Kurochkin (eds.), The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia, Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 627-652. Zhelestidae

Averianov, AO (2002), Early Cretaceous “symmetrodont” mammal Gobiotheriodonfrom Mongolia and the classification of “Symmetrodonta”. Acta Palaeontol. Pol.47: 705-716. Tinodontidae.


Bailey, JB (1997), Neural spine elongation in dinosaurs: sailbacks or buffalo-backs? J. Paleontol. 71: 1124-1146. Ianthasaurus, Ouranosaurus

Bailon, S (1988), Un aniliidé (Reptilia, Serpentes) dans le Pliocène Supérieur Européen. C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris (Ser. II) 306: 1255-1258. Aniliidae.

Bajpai, S & PD Gingerich (1998), A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of origin of whales. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA)95:15464-15468. Cetacea, Cetartiodactyla.

Bajpai, S & JGM Thewissen (1998), Middle Eocene cetaceans from the Harudi and Subathu Formations of India, inJGM Thewissen [ed.], The Emergence of Whales, Plenum Press pp 213-233. Protocetidae, Remingtonocetidae.

Bakker, RT (1975), Dinosaur Renaissance, Scientific American232: 58­78. Tapinocephalidae.

Bakker, RT, (1986), The Dinosaur Heresies : New Theories Unlocking the Mystery of the Dinosaurs and Their Extinction. Kensington Pub Corp.: 481 pp. Diplodocus, Tapinocephalidae, Titanosauria, Tyrannosauroidea.

Barghusen, HR (1968), The lower jaw of cynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida) and the evolutionary origin of mammal-like adductor jaw musculature. Postilla116: 1-49. Cynodontia.

Barghusen, HR (1975), A review of fighting adaptions in dinocephalians Reptilia, Therapsida), Paleobiology1: 295-311. Struthiocephalus, Tapinocephalidae.

Barlow, AJ & PH Francis-West (1997), Ectopic application of recombinant BMP-2 and BMP-4 can change patterning of developing chick facial primordia. Development 124: 391-398. Meckel's Cartilage.

Barlow, GW (2000), The Cichlid Fishes: Nature's Grand Experiment in Evolution. Perseus Publishing: 335 pp. Cichlidae, Epibranchials, Labridae, Labroidei.

Barsbold, R & T Maryanska (1990), Segnosauria in DB Weishampel, P Dodson, & H Osmólka (eds), The Dinosauria. Univ. Calif. Press, pp. 408-415. Therizinosauridae.

Basden, AM & GC Young (2001), A primitive actinopterygian neurocranium from the Early Devonian of southeastern Australia. J. Vert. Paleontol. 21: 754-766. Sarcopterygii

Battail, B & MV Surkov (2000), Mammal-like reptiles from Russia in MJ Benton, MA Shishkin, DM Unwin & EN Kurochkin (eds.), The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia, Cambridge Univ. Press, pp 86-119. Anoplosuchus, Anteosauria, Archaeosyodon, Biarmosuchia, Brithopus, Chthomaloporus, Deuterosaurus, Dolisauriscus, Dvinia, Eotitanosuchia, Estemmenosuchidae, Estemmenosuchus, Jugals, Lystrosaurus, Molybdopygus, Nanocynodon, Notosyodon, Phthinosuchidae, Procynosuchidae, Sphenacodontia, Syodon, Tapinocephalidae, Therapsida, Ulemosaurus.

Beaumont, EH (1977), Cranial morphology of the Loxommatidae (Amphibia: Labyrinthodontia). Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B280: 29-101. Baphetes, Baphetidae, Loxomma, Megalocephalus, Septomaxilla, Spathicephalus.

Beaumont, EH & TR Smithson (1998), The cranial morphology and relationships of the aberrant Carboniferous amphibian Spathicephalus mirusWatson. Zool. J. Linn. Soc.122: 187-209. Spathicephalus

Behrensmeyer, AK, JD Damuth, WA DiMichele, R Potts, H-D Sues & SL Wing (1992), Terrestrial Ecosystems Through Time: Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals. Univ. Chicago Press, 568 pp. Heterodontosauridae.

Bemis, WE, EK Findeis & L Grande (1997), An overview of Acipenseriformes. Env. Biol. Fishes, 48: 25-71. Acipenseriformes, Birgeriidae, Chondrostei, Saurichthyidae.

Bendix-Almgreen, SE (1971), The anatomy of Menaspis armataand the phyletic affinities of the menaspid bradydonts. Lethaia4: 21-49. Menaspidae.

Bennett, SC (1996), Aerodynamics and thermoregulatory function of the dorsal sail of Edaphosaurus. Paleobiology 22: 496-506. Ianthasaurus.

Bennett, SC (1996), Year-classes of pterosaurs from the Solnhofen Limestone of Germany: taxonomic and systematic implications. J. Vert. Paleontol. 16: 432-444. Dactylosaurus, Pterodactyloidea.

Bennett, SC (1997), Terrestrial locomotion of pterosaurs: a reconstruction based on Pteraichnus trackways. J. Vert. Paleontol. 17: 104-113. Pterodactyloidea, Pterosauria.

Bensch, S & A Härlid (2000), Mitochondrial genomic rearrangements in songbirds. Mol. Biol. Evol. 17: 107-113. Cuculiformes.

Benson, RD (1999), Presbyornis isoni and other Late Paleocene birds from North Dakota. Smithsonian Contribs. Paleobiol.89: 253-259. Presbyornis, Telmabates.

Benton, MJ (1984), Rauisuchians and the success of dinosaurs. Nature310: 101. Poposauridae, Prestosuchidae, Rauisuchia, Rauisuchidae, Saurosuchus.

Benton, MJ (1997), Origin and early evolution of Dinosaurs, inJO Farlow & MK Brett-Surman (eds.), The Complete Dinosaur. Indiana Univ. Press, pp. 204-215. Dinosauria

Benton MJ (1999), Scleromochlus tayloriand the origin of dinosaurs and pterosaurs, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond.B354: 1423-1446. Ornithodira, Ornithosuchidae, Scleromochlus.  

Benton, MJ & JM Clark (1988), Archosaur phylogeny and the relationships of the Crocodilia inMJ Benton (ed.), The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods 1: 295-338. Oxford, The Systematics Assoc. Archosauria, Gracilisuchus, Ornithosuchidae, Prestosuchidae.

Benton MJ & PCJ Donoghue (2007), Paleontological Evidence to Date the Tree of Life. Mol. Bio. Evol. 24: 26-53. Glossary.

Benton, MJ & DJ Gower (2002), Alick D. Walker 1925–1999: an appreciation. Zool. J. Linn. Soc.136: 1-5. Euparkeriidae.

Benton, MJ & AD Walker (2002), Erpetosuchus, a crocodile-like basal archosaur from the Late Triassic of Elgin, Scotland, Zool. J. Linn. Soc.136: 25-47. Aetosauridae, Batrachotomus, Erpetosuchus, Gracilisuchus, Ornithosuchidae, Prestosuchidae.

Benton, MJ, L Juul, GW Storrs, & PM Galton 2000), Anatomy and systematics of the prosauropod dinosaur Thecodontosaurus antiquus from the Upper Triassic of Southwest England. J. Vert. Paleontol. 20: 77-108.Dactylosaurus, Sauropodomorpha.

Beresford, P, FK Barker, PG Ryan & TM Crowe 2005), African endemics span the tree of songbirds (Passeri): molecular systematics of several evolutionary ‘enigmas.’  Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 272: 849-858. Ratites.

Berger, AJ (1960), Some anatomical characters of the Cuculidae and the Musophagidae. Wilson Bull. 72: 60-103. Cuculidae.

Berman, DS (2000), Origin and early evolution of the amniote occiput. J. Paleontol. 74: 938-956. Acanthostega, Baphetes, Baphetidae, The Occiput, The Opisthotic

Berman, DS, RR Reisz, D Scott, AC Henrici, SS Sumida & T Martens (2000), Early Permian bipedal reptile. Science 290: 969-972. Bolosauridae, The Opisthotic.

Berner, RA & Z Kothavala (2001), GEOCARB III: a revised model of atmospheric CO2over Phanerozoic time. Amer. J. Sci. 301: 182-204. Tetrapoda.

Berner, RA, DJ Beerling, R Dudley, JM Robinson & RAWildman, Jr (2003), Phanerozoic atmospheric oxygen. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci.31: 105–34. Tetrapoda.

Bertelli, S & LM Chiappe (2005), Earliest tinamous (Aves: Palaeognathae) from the Miocene of Argentina and their phylogenetic position. Contrib. Sci.#502, 20 pp. Ratites.

Bertelli, S & AL Porzecanski (2004), Tinamou (Tinamidae) systematics: A preliminary combined analysis of morphology and molecules. Ornit. Neotrop.15 (supp.), 8pp. Ratites.

Birstein, VJ, R Hanner & R DeSalle (1997), Phylogeny of the Acipenseriformes: cytogenetic and molecular approaches. Env. Biol. Fishes, 48: 127-155. Acipenseriformes, Chondrostei.

Blieck ARM & P Janvier (1999), Silurian-Devonian vertebrate-dominated communities, with particular reference to agnathans, inAJ Boucot & J Lawson [eds.], Paleocommunities: a Case Study from the Silurian and Lower Devonian. Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 79-105. Amphiaspidida, Corviaspididae, Ctenaspis.

Blieck, A & VN Karatajute-Talimaa (2001) New corvaspids from the Lochkovian (Lower Devonian) of Severnaya Zemlya, Russia (Vertebrata: Pteraspidomorphi: Heterostraci), inDK Elliott & MD Gottfried [eds.], 9th International Meeting on Early Vertebrates/Lower Vertebrates. J. Vert. Paleontol.21: 639-650. Corveolepis, Corviaspididae.

Blieck, ARM, VN Karatajütë-Talimaa & E Mark-Kurik 2002), Upper Silurian and Devonian pteraspidomorphs (Vertebrata) from Severnaya Zemlya (Russia): a preliminary report with biogeographical and biostratigraphical implications. Geodiversitas24: 805-820. WWW  Amphiaspidida, Corviaspididae, Corveolepis, Hibernaspidoidei.

Blom, H (1999), Loganellia (Thelodonti, Agnatha) from the Lower Silurian of North Greenland, Acta Geol. Polonica49: 97-104. Loganellia.

Blom, H (2005), Taxonomic revision of the Late Devonian tetrapod Ichthyostegafrom East Greenland. Palaeontology48: 111-134. Ichthyostega, Tetrapoda.

Blom, H & D Goujet (2002), Thelodont scales from the Lower Devonian Red Bay Group, Spitsbergen, Palaeontology45: 795-820. Apalolepididae, Katoporida, Nikoliviidae, Turiniidae, Thelodontida.

Bolt, JR & S Chatterjee (2000), A new temnospondyl amphibian from the Late Triassic of Texas. J. Paleontol.74: 670-683.

Bonaparte, JF (1971), Annotated list of the South American Triassic tetrapods, in SH Haughton (ed.), Second Gondwana Symposium, Proceedings and Papers[1970]. Council of Scientific and Inustrial Research [Praetoria] 2: 665-682. Ornithosuchidae, Neoaetosauroides, Saurosuchus, Stagonolepis, Venaticosaurus.

Bonaparte, J (1986), The early radiation and phylogenetic relationships of the Jurassic sauropod dinosaurs, based on vertebral anatomy, in K Padian (ed.), The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs. Barapasaurus, Haplocanthosaurus

Boonstra, LD (1956), The skull of Tapinocephalusand its near relatives. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 43: 137-169. Tapinocephalidae.

Boonstra, LD (1963), Diversity within the South African Dinocephalia. S. Afr. J. Sci.59: 196-206. Tapinocephalidae, Ulemosaurus.

Boonstra, LD (1965), The skull of Struthiocephalus kitchingi. Ann. S. Afr. Mus.48: 251-265. Struthiocephalus, Tapinocephalidae.

Boonstra, LD (1969), The fauna of the Tapinocephalus Zone (Beaufort Beds of the Karoo). Ann S. Afr. Mus.56: 1-73. Anteosaurus, Jonkeria, Struthiocephalus, Tapinocephalia.

Brandoni, D, AA Carlini, F Pujos & GJ Scillato-Yané (2004), The pes of Pyramiodontherium bergi(Moreno & Mercerat, 1891) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Phyllophaga): the most complete pes of a Tertiary Megatheriinae. Geodiversitas26: 643-659.

Brant, SV & G Ortí (2002), Molecular phylogeny of short-tailed shrews, Blarina(Insectivora, Soricidae), Mol. Phylogen. & Evol.22: 163-173. Insectivora.

Brett-Surman, MK (1997), Ornithopods, in Farlow, JO & MK Brett-Surman (eds.), The Complete Dinosaur, pp. 330-346. Hadrosauridae.

Brink, AS (1956), Struthiocephalus kirchingisp. nov. Palaeont. Afr.5: 39-56. Struthiocephalus.

Brochu, CA (2001), Progress and future directions in archosaur phylogenetics. J. Paleontol.75: 1185–1201. Archosauria

Brown, DS (1981), The Upper Jurassic Plesiosauroidea (Reptilia) and a  review of the phylogeny and classification of the Plesiosauria. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist., Geol.35: 253-347. Colymbosaurus, Cryptocleididae, Elasmosauridae, Microcleidus, Muraenosaurus, Plesiosauroidea, Pliosauroidea

Bry, C (1996), Role of vegetation in the life cycle of pike inJF Craig [ed.], Pike Biology and Exploitation.Chapman & Hall, pp 45-67. Esociformes.

Buchholtz, EA (1997), Paleopathology inPJ Currie & K Padian (eds.), Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press, pp. 522-534. Tyrannosauridae, Tyrannosauroidea.

Buchholtz, EA (1998), Implications of vertebral morphology for locomotor evolution in early Cetacea inJGM Thewissen [ed.], The Emergence of Whales, Plenum Press pp 325-351. Ambulocetidae, Autoceta, Basilosauridae, Basilosaurus, Georgiacetus, Remingtonocetidae.

Buffetaut, E (1982), Radiation évolutive, paléoécologie et biogéographie des crocodiliens Mésosuchiens, Mém. Soc. Géol. de France, N.S. 60 (dated 1981) No. 142, 88 pp. Lybicosuchidae.

Burmeister, KC, JJ Flynn, JM Parrish, RL Whatley & AR Wyss (2000), Biostratigraphic and biogeographic implications of new middle to Late Triassic fossil vertebrates; Morondava Basin, Madagascar, Abstracts of the 2000 Meeting of the Western Association of Vertebrate Paleontologists, Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff- pdf. - Aetosauridae

Busbey, AB (1986), New material of Sebecus cf. huilensis (Crocodilia: Sebecosuchidae) from the Miocene La Venta formation of Colombia, J. Vert. Paleontol. 6: 20-27. Sebecosuchidae

Butler, PM (2000), Review of the early allotherian mammals. Acta Palaeontol. Pol. 45: 317-342. Allotheria, Haramiyida, Multituberculata.


Caldwell, MW (1994), Developmental constraints and limb evoluiton in Permian and extant lepidosauromorph diapsids. J. Vert. Paleontol. 14: 459-471. Neodiapsida

Caldwell, MW (1996), Ichthyosauria: a preliminary phylogenetic analysis of diapsid affinities. N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 361-386. Neodiapsida

Caldwell, MW (1999), Squamate phylogeny and the relationships of snakes and mosasauroids. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 125: 115-147. Agamidae, Anguoidea, Lanthanotidae, Monstersauria, Pythonomorpha, Serpentes, Varanoidea.

Caldwell, MW (2000), On the phylogenetic relationships of Pachyrachis within snakes: a response to Zaher 1998). J. Vert. Paleontol. 20: 187-190. Serpentes

Caldwell, MW & AM Albino (2001), Paleoenvironment and paleoecology of three Cretaceous snakes: Pachyophis, Pachyrachis, and Dinilysia. Acta Palaeontol. Pol. 46: 203-218. Dinilysia; Madtsoiidae; Pachyophiidae.

Caldwell, MW, RL Carroll, & H Kaisar 1995), The pectoral girdle and forelimb of Carsosaurus marchesetti (Aigialosauridae), with preliminary phylogenetic analysis of mosasauroids and varanoids. J. Vert. Paleontol. 15: 516-531. Pythonomorpha.

Caldwell, MW & MSY Lee (1997), A snake with legs from the marine Cretaceous of the Middle East. Nature 386: 705-709. Jugals, Pachyophiidae, Serpentes, Squamata.

Callaway, JM (1997), A new look at Mixosaurus, inJM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles. Academic Press.  pp. 45-59. Grippidia, Ichthyosauria, Mixosaurus.

Callaway, JM (1997a), Ichthyosauria: Introduction, inJM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles. Academic Press,  pp. 3-16. Ichthyosauria, Ichthyosaurus, Mixosaurus, Neodiapsida, Sauria, Temnodontosaurus.

Callison, G. & HM Quimby (1984), Tiny dinosaurs: are they fully grown? J. Vert. Paleontol. 3:200-209. Genasauria.

Cameron, CB, JR Garey & BJ Swalla (2000), Evolution of the chordate body plan: new insights from phylogenetic analyses of deuterostome phyla. Proc. Nat'l. Acad. Sci. 97: 4469-4474. Vertebrata

Camp, CL (1980), Large ichthyosaurs from the Upper Triassic of Nevada. Palaeontographica Ser. A.170: 139-200. Californosaurus, Shastasauria.

Campbell, KSW & RE Barwick (1995), The primitive dipnoan dental plate. J. Vert. Paleontol. 15: 13-27. Diabolepis; Dipnoi; Youngolepis.

Caputi L, N Andreakis, F Mastrototaro, P Cirino, M Vassillo & P Sordino (2007), Cryptic speciation in a model invertebrate chordate. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA)104: 9364-9369. Ascideacea.

Carpenter, K (1997), Comparative cranial anatomy of two North American Cretaceous plesiosaurs, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles Academic Press, pp. 191-216.  Liopleurodon, Peloneustes.

Carpenter, K (1997a), Thyreophora in Currie, PJ and K Padian (eds.), Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs Academic Press, pp. 737-738. Thyreophora.

Carpenter, K (1997b), Ankylosaurs in JO Farlow & MK Brett-Surman, The Complete Dinosaur. Indiana Univ. Press, pp. 307-316. Ankylosauria.

Carpenter, K (1997c), Tyrannosauridae inPJ Currie & K Padian (eds.), Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Academic Press, pp. 766-768. Tyrannosauridae.

Carpenter, K & M Smith (2001), Forelimb osteology and biomechanics of Tyrannosaurus rex, K Carpenter & D Tanke [eds.], Mesozoic Vertebrate Life. Indiana Univ. Press, pp. 90-116. Albertosaurus, Gorgosaurus, Tyrannosauroidea.

Carr, TD (1999), Craniofacial ontogeny in Tyrannosauridae (Dinosauria, Coelurosauria). J. Vert. Paleontol.19: 497-520. Tyrannosauroidea.

Carr TD, TE Williamson & DR Schwimmer (2005), A new genus and species of tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous (Middle Campanian) Demopolis Formation of Alabama. J. Vert Paleontol.25: 119-143. Alectrosaurus.

Carrano, MT & JR Hutchinson (2002), Pelvic and hindlimb musculature of Tyrannosaurus rex(Dinosauria: Theropoda). J. Morphol.253: 207-228 (2002).

Carrano, MT, CM Janis & JJ Sepkoski, Jr. 1999), Hadrosaurs as ungulate parallels: lost lifestyles and deficient data. Acta Pal. Pol. 44: 237-261. Hadrosaurinae, Lambeosaurinae, Ouranosaurus.

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Luo, Z-X & ER Eastman (1995), Petrosal and inner-ear of a squalodontoid whale - implications for evolution of hearing in Odontocetes. J. Vert. Paleontol.15: 431-442. Autoceta, Ear, OdontocetiSqualodontidae.

Luo ZX (2001), The inner ear and its bony housing in tritylodontids and implications for evolution of the mammalian ear. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 156: 81-97. Glossary.

Luo, Z-X, RL Cifelli & Z Kielan-Jaworowska 2001a), Dual origin of tribosphenic mammals. Nature 409: 53-57. Ausktribosphenida, Australosphenida, Cladotheria, Mammalia; Mammalia Overview, Spalacotheroidea, Symmetrodonta.

Luo, Z-X, AW Crompton, & A-L Sun (2001), A new mammaliaform from the Early Jurassic and evolution of mammalian characteristics. Science 292: 1535-1546. Hadrocodium, Multituberculata, Triconodonta.

Luo, Z-X, Z Kielan-Jaworowska & RL Cifelli 2002), In quest for a phylogeny of Mesozoic mammals. Acta Palaeontol. Pol. 47: 1-78. Amphilestes, Ausktribosphenidae, Docodontidae, Gobiconodon, Jeholodens, Kuehneotheriidae, Mammalia Overview, Mammaliaformes, Priacodon, Theriodonta, Triconodonta, Triconodontidae, Trioracodon, Trithelodontidae, Tritylodontidae.

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