Range: from the Early Eocene.
Chicken - ducks: perhaps the basic transitional shorebird stock. Defined here as the last common ancestor of Daffy Duck and General Tso's Chicken and all of its descendants. The clade may be redundant with taxa described as Carinatae, Neognathae, or even Neornithes.
Links: Ericson.pdf; Ostrom Symposium - Part 3; Birds.doc; Cracraft.pdf; 123.pdf; 117.pdf; Bradley Livezey & Richard Zusi 2001; Groth.pdf; On The Phylogeny and Classification of Living Birds; Figure 1; Galloanserae summary of support for clade); Morphological and molecular support for nonmonophyly of the ... (abstract); Taxonomic recommendations for British birds; Dutch avifaunal list- species concepts, taxonomic ...; Basal Divergences in Birds; Figure 1; Journal of Molecular Evolution 47- 449-462 (1998) credible molecular study); Fossil Aptornithidae. ATW030609.
Galliformes: Gallus (chicken), geese, turkey.
from the Early Eocene.
Beak slightly down-curved; sternum develops early; sternum elongated posteriorly, often deeply incised; breast muscles strongly developed; wings short & rounded; strong feet used for scratching or digging; feet zygodactyl; frequently have special male display structures as wattles, combs, tail feathers and casques. Young usually precocial; primarily ground birds, but usually capable of strong, highly maneuverable flight for short distances; few species completely flightless except Megapodes ("mound builders"); possibly more closely related to ratites or cuculiformes.
Links: UPA Homepage; naturesongs; skullsunlimited; kingdom; Galliformes; GeoZoo: Galliformes; Patuxent Bird Identification InfoCenter; Animal Diversity Web: Order Galliformes; The Galliformes; Birds of the World Two- Galliformes; Aves/GALLIFORMES/galliformes.html">Aves- Galliformes German); NCBI Taxonomy Browser; Ressources pour l'éducation à l'environnement - Oiseaux - ...; Galliformes | Animals | Chaffee Zoological Gardens of Fresno; Galliformes; Galliformes; APUS.RU | Отряд Курообразные - Galliformes; Galliformes Links. ATW030510.
Gallinuloididae: Gallinuloides, Paraortygoides?, Procrax, Taoperdix.
Range: Early Eocene Ypresian) to Miocene of Europe (Germany) & North America.
Phylogeny: Galliformes : (Megapodidae + (Cracidae + (Numididae + (Odontophoridae + Phasianidae)))) + *.
Image: Gallinuloides from Fedducia 1999).
Links: Abstracts of Senckenbergiana lethaea; birds. ATW030220.
Megapodidae: brush turkeys, malleefowl) Aepypodius, Alectura, Megapodius, Ngawupodius, Progura, Talegalla.
Range: presently Australia
Phylogeny: Galliformes :: (Cracidae + Numididae + (Odontophoridae + Phasianidae))) + *.
Characters: beak robust and curved; wings medium-sized and strongly rounded; legs long, robust & scaled; digits long, strong & scaled; hallux long, touching substrate when standing; claws slightly curved; omnivorous; eggs very large & thin-walled; eggs without air space; ultimate precociality in having no parental care; nest very large (hence "mound builders"), with temperature controlled by addition of sand, fermenting compost, etc.; male builds & tends large ground nest until hatching, when chicks must dig out;
Links: Megapodidae; Galliformes | Animals | Chaffee Zoological Gardens of Fresno; Moluccan Scrubfowl; 2001 Queensland Term Postcards fairly good photo); Lecture 19; Malleefowl; Endothermy and thermoregulation; Bird Bibliography Part 2. ATW030220.
Cracidae: (curassows, guans, chachalacids) Crax, Mitu, Nothocrax, Pauxi, Penelopina.
Range: South America & the Caribbean
Phylogeny: Galliformes ::: (Numididae + Odontophoridae + Phasianidae)) + *.
Characters: 75-112 cm; plumage often unpatterned brown or glossy black; bill heavy and like that of chicken; cere, lores, and sometimes throat and wattles bare and colorful; wings short and rounded; tail broad, long, flat; legs strong; feet large with hallux not elevated; roost in trees & generally more arboreal than most galliforms; feed on fruit & seeds.
Image: Penelope from Curassows and guans.
Links: Curassows and guans; Cracidae; The Family Cracidae- Taxonomic Reference List; Cracidae; Familia Cracidae; The Craciformes; Cracidae - Wikipedia; InfoNatura Species Index- Family Cracidae. ATW030914
Numididae: guinea fowl) Acryllium, Agelastes, Guttera, Numida, Telecrex.
Range: wild populations currently restricted to southern Africa and Madagascar (but domesticated in Europe since ancient times).
Characters: 45-60 cm; largely unfeathered head and neck; head usually with brightly colored wattles, comb, or crest; bill large, stout; feed on seeds & insects; accomplished runners; nest is simple hollow in the ground with little lining; females lay 7-20 eggs, incubated by female for about four weeks; young are precocial and able to fend for themselves almost immediately..
Links: Numididae; Numididae Mikko's Phylogeny); Guineas.com (hobbyist ag site); The Galliformes; ???????? (Japanese); guinea fowl. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001. ATW030221
Odontophoridae: New World quails) Callipepla, Colinus, Cyrtonyx, Odontophorus, Oreortyx
Range: North & South America.
Phylogeny: Galliformes ::::: Phasianidae + *.
Characters: small to medium sized game birds; short tails; fond in open country and brushy areas; clutch of approximately 12 eggs; no leg spurs.
Links: GeoZoo- Quail! (family Odontophoridae); Odontophoridae Mikko's phylogeny); Open Directory - Science- Biology- Flora and Fauna- Animalia- ... links to pages on species); bird1; ATW030221.
Phasianidae: chicken, pheasants, peacocks, turkeys, etc.) Gallus, Maleagris, Pavo
Phylogeny: Galliformes ::::: Odontophoridae + *.
Links: Google Directory - Science > Biology > Flora and Fauna > Animalia ...; Animal Diversity Web: Phasianidae Family; GeoZoo- Pheasants, Grouse, Peacocks & Chickens! (family ...; Aves/GALLIFORMES/PHASIANIDAE/phasianidae.html">Aves- Galliformes; Phasianidae; familia Phasianidae; ATW030221.