Palaeos Palaeos References
Vertebrates M-Z




Maas, MC (1997), Enamel microstructure in notoungulates, in RF Kay et al. [eds.], Vertebrate Paleontology in the Neotropics: the Miocene Fauna of La Venta, Colombia. Smithsonian Inst. Press: pp. 319-334.  Notostylopidae.

Maas, MC, JGM Thewissen, S Sen, N Kazanci & J Kappelman (2001), Enigmatic new ungulates from the Early Middle Eocene central Anatolia, Turkey. J. Vert. Paleontol. 21: 578-590. Hilalia.

Macey, JR, A Larson, NB Ananjeva & TJ Papenfuss (1997), Replication slippage may cause parallel evolution in the secondary structures of mitochondrial transfer RNAs. Mol. Biol. Evol. 14: 30-39. Anguimorpha

Macey, JR, JA Schulte II & A Larson (2000), Evolution and phylogenetic information content of mitochondrial genomic structural features illustrated with acrodont lizards. Syst. Biol. 49: 257-277. Acrodonta, Cuculiformes.

Macey, JR, JA Schulte II, A Larson, NB Ananjeva, Y Wang, R Pethiyagoda, N Rastegar-Puyani, & TJ Papenfuss (2000a), Evaluating trans-Tethys migration: an example using acrodont lizard phylogenetics. Syst. Biol. 49: 233-256. Acrodonta, Agamidae, Amphibolurinae, Draconinae.

MacFadden, BJ & GS Morgan (2003), New oreodont (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from the Late Oligocene (Early Arikareean) of FloridaBull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.279: 368-396.  WWWEntelodontoidea, Oreodontoidea.

MacPhee, RDE & MJ Novacek (1993), Definition and relationships of Lipotyphla, inFS Szalay, MJ Novacek & MC McKenna [eds.], Mammal Phylogeny: Placentals, Springer 2: 13–31. Chrysochloroidea, Crocidurinae, Insectivora, Palaeoryctidae, Soricidae, Soricinae.   

Macrini TE, C DeMuizon, RL Cifelli & T Rowe (2007), Digital cranial endocast of Pucadelphys andinus, a Paleocene metatherian, J. Vert. Pal. 27: 99–107. Glossary.

Madar, SI (1998), Structural adaptations of early archaeocete long bones inJGM Thewissen [ed.], The Emergence of Whales, Plenum Press pp 353-378.  Basilosaurus, Dorudon, Protocetidae

Mader, B & R Bradley (1989), A redescription and revised diagnosis of the syntypes of the Mongolian tyrannosaur Alectrosaurus olseni. J. Vert. Paleontol.9: 41-55. Alectrosaurus, Ornithomimosauria, Tyrannosauridae.

Maisey, JG (1977), The fossil selachian fishes PalaeospinaxEgerton, 1872 and NemacanthusAgassiz, 1837Zool. J. Linn. Soc.60: 259-273.  Cladoselachida, Synechodus

Maisey, JG (1981), Studies on the Paleozoic selachian genus Ctenacanthus Agassiz no. 1. Historical review and revised diagnosis of Ctenacanthus, with a list of referred taxa. Am. Mus. Nov. 2718, 22 pp. Ctenacanthidae.  

Maisey, JG (1982), The anatomy and interrelationships of Mesozoic hybodont sharks. Amer. Mus. Nov.No. 2724, 48 pp. Cladoselachida.  

Maisey, JG (1983), Cranial Anatomy of Hybodus basanusEgerton from the Lower Cretaceous of England Am. Mus. Nov. No. 2758, 64pp.  Cladoselachida.  

Maisey, JG (1984), Higher elasmobranch phylogeny and biostratigraphyZool. J. Linn. Soc.82: 33-54.  Synechodontiformes, Synechodus

Maisey, JG (1984a), Chondrichthyan phylogeny: a look at the evidenceJ. Vert Paleontol.  4: 359-371.  Cladoselachida, Synechodontiformes.

Maisey, JG (1985), Cranial morphology of the fossil elasmobranch Synechodus dubrisiensis. Amer. Mus. Nov.2804, 28 pp. Synechodontiformes, Synechodus.

Maisey, JG (1988), The phylogeny of early vertebrate skeletal induction and ossification patterns. Evol. Biol. 22: 1-36. Osteichthyes.  

Maisey, JG (1993), The interrelationships of Protospinax(Elasmobranchii: Hypnosqualea) reviewed in light of new materialJ. Vert. Paleontol.13: 48A (Abstract) Hypnosqualea, Protospinax, Synechodontiformes.

Maisey, JG (2001), CT-scan reveals new cranial features in Devonian chondrichthyan "Cladodus" wildungensis. J. Vert. Paleontol.21: 807-810.  Cladoselachida.  

Maisey, JG (2004), Morphology of the braincase in the broadnose sevengill shark Notorynchus(Elasmobranchii, Hexanchiformes), based on CT scanning. Amer. Mus. Nov.3429, 52 pp.  Glossary, Psarolepis, Synechodus.  

Maisey, JG (2005), Braincase of the Upper Devonian shark Cladodoides wildungensis (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii), with observations on the braincase in early chondrichthyans. Bul. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.No. 288, 103 pp.  Chondrichthyes Crown Group.  

Makovicky, PJ, MA Norell, JM Clark & T Rowe (2003), Osteology and relationships of Byronosaurus jaffei(Theropoda: Troodontidae)Amer. Mus. Nov. 3402, 21 pp.  The Ear, Troodontidae.

Mallatt, J (1996), Ventilation and the origin of jawed vertebrates: a new mouth. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 117: 329-404. Meckel's Cartilage.

Mallatt, J, J-Y Chen & ND Holland (2003), Comment on "A new species of Yunnanozoan with implications for deuterostome evolution", Science1372c.  WWWHaikouella.  

Manabe, M (1999), The early evolution of the Tyrannosauridae in Asia. J. Paleontol. 73: 1176-1178.  Tyrannosauridae.

Mancum, DJ, EA Tuley, LA Westfield, NK Worrall, BB Shelton-Inloes, JM Sorace, YG Alevy & JE Sadler (1989), Structure of the gene for human von Willebrand Factor, J. Biol. Chem.264: 19514-19527.  Insectivora

Manley, GA & JA Clack (2004), Vertebrate systematics and an outline of the evolution of vertebrate hearing organs, in Evolution of the Vertebrate Auditory System, GA Manley, A Popper & RR Fay (eds), Springer-Verlag, pp. 1-26.  Tetrapoda.  

Marivaux, L, J-L Welcomme, P-O Antoine, G Métais, IM Baloch, M Benammi, Y Chaimanee, S Ducrocq & J-J Jaeger (2001), A fossil lemur from the Oligocene of Pakistan. Science 294: 587-591. Adapiformes, Lemuriformes, Lemuroidea.  

Marsh, OC (1884), Principal characters of American Jurassic dinosaurs. Part VIII. The order Theropoda. Am. J. Sci. (3rd ser.) 27: 329-340. Coelurus.

Marsh, OC (1888), Notes of a new genus of Sauropoda and other new dinosaurs from the Potomac Formation. Am. J. Sci. (3rd ser.) 31: 89-94. Coelurus.

Marss, T (1986), Squamation of the thelodont agnathan Phlebolepis. J. Vert. Paleontol.6: 1-11.  Katoporida, Loganiidae, Phlebolepis, Thelodonti, Thelodontida.  

Marss, T (1999), A new Late Silurian or Early Devonian thelodont from the Boothia peninsula, Arctic Canada, Palaeontology42: 1079-1099.  Archipelepididae, Nikoliviidae.  

Marss, T (2002), Silurian and Lower Devonian anaspids (Agnatha) from Severnaya Zemlya (Russia), Geodiversitas24: 123-137. Cephalaspidida

Marss, T & VN Karatajute-Talimaa (2002), Ordovician and Lower Silurian thelodonts from Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago (Russia), Geodiversitas24: 381-404.  Loganiidae

Marss, T & A Ritchie (1998), Articulated thelodonts (Agnatha) of Scotland, Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, Earth Sci. 88: 143-195.  Epibranchials, Lanarkia, Loganellia, Shielia. 

Marss, T, MVH Wilson & R Thorsteinsson (2002), New thelodont (Agnatha) and possible chondrichthyan (Gnathostomata) taxa established in the Silurian and Lower Devonian of the Canadian Arctic ArchipelagoProc. Estonian Acad. Sci.51: 88-120.  Teeth.

Maryanska, T, H Osmólska & M Wolsan (2002), Avialan status for Oviraptorosauria. Acta Pal. Pol.47: 97-116. Aves, Oviraptorosauria.

Mathur, AK & PD Polly (2000), The evolution of enamel microstructure: how important is amelogenin?  J. Mamm. Evol.7: 23-42.  Teeth

Mazan, S, D Jaillard, B Baratte & P Janvier (2000), Otx1gene-controlled morphogenesis of the horizontal semicircular canal and the origin of the gnathostome characteristicsEvol. & Devel.2: 186.  Teeth.    

McCauley, DW & M Bronner-Fraser (2003), Neural crest contributions to the lamprey headDevelopment130: 2317-2327 Teeth.  

McEachran, JD, KA Dunn & T Miyake (1996), Interrelationships of the batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea), inMLJ Stiassny, LR Parenti & GD Johnson (eds.), Interrelationships of Fishes.  Academic Press, pp. 63-84.  Batomorphii, Hypnosqualea

McGowan, C (1991), Dinosaurs, Spitfires and Sea Dragons. Harvard Univ. Press, 365 pp. Ichthyosaurus, Temnodontosaurus.

McGowan, C (1995), A remarkable small ichthyosaur from the Upper Triassic of British Columbia, representing a new genus and species. Can. J. Earth Sci.32: 292-303.  Eurhinosauria

McGowan, C (1997), A transitional ichthyosaur fauna, inJM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles.  Academic Press,  pp. 61-80. Ichthyosaurus, Shastasauria, Temnodontosaurus, Thunnosauria.

McKenna, MC (1956), Survival of primitive notoungulates and condylarths into the Miocene of Colombia. Amer. J. Sci.254: 736-743.  Notoungulata.  

McKenna, MC (1963), New evidence against tupaioid affinities of the mammalian family AnagalidaeAmer. Mus. Nov.2158, 16 pp. Anagalidae

Mendoza, M, CM Janis & P Palmqvist (2002), Characterizing complex craniodental patterns related to feeding behaviour in ungulates: a multivariate approachJ. Zool.258: 223-246.  Stenomylinae.  

Meylan, PA (1996), Skeletal morphology and relationships of the early Cretaceous side-necked turtle, Araripemys barretoi (Testudines: Pelomedusoides: Araripemyidae), from the Santana formation of Brazil. J. Vert. Paleontol. 16: 20-33. Podcnemoidae

Miao, D (1993), Cranial morphology and multituberculate relationships, in FS Szalay, MJ Novacek & MC McKenna (eds.), Mammal Phylogeny: Mesozoic Differentiation, Multituberculates, Monotremes, Early Therians, and Marsupials. Springer-Verlag, pp. 63-74. Allotheria; Cimolodonta; Multituberculata.

Michard, J-G (1988), La dentine d'Ouranosaurus nigeriensis (Ornithischia, Iguanodontidae): étude en microscopie photonique et électronique. Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Paris (4me sér.) 10: 405-418. Ouranosaurus.

Miles, CA, K Carpenter & K Cloward (1998), A new skeleton of Coelurus fragilis from the Morrison Formation of Wyoming. J. Vert. Paleontol. 18: 64A. Coelurus.

Miller CG & T Marss (1999), A conodont, thelodont and acanthodian fauna from the Lower Pridoli (Silurian) of the Much Wenlock area, Shropshire. Palaeontology42: 691-714.  Loganiidae.

Miller, RF, R Cloutier & S Turner (2003), The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period. Nature425: 501-504.  Psarolepis

Milner, AC & W Lindsay (1998), Postcranial remains of Baphetesand their bearing on the relationships of the Baphetidae (=Loxommatidae)Zool. J. Linn. Soc.122: 211-235. Baphetes, Baphetidae.

Milner, AR (1980), The Tetrapod assemblage from Nyrany, Czechoslovakia, inAL Panchen (ed.), The Terrestrial Environment and the Origin of Land Vertebrates. Academic Press: pp.439-496. Cochleosauridae, Edopoidea

Mindell, DP, MD Sorenson, CJ Huddleston, HC Miranda, Jr., A Knight, SJ Sawchuk & T Yuri (1997), Phylogenetic relationships among and within select avian orders based on mitochondrial DNA, in DP Mindell (ed.), Avian Molecular Evolution and Systematics. Academic Press. pp. 213-247. Acrodonta, Cuculiformes.

Mindell, DP, MD Sorenson & DE Dimcheff (1998), Multiple independent origins of mitochondrial gene order in birds. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 95: 10693-10697. Cuculiformes

Modesto SP (1994), The Lower Permian synapsid Glaucosaurus from Texas. Paleontology 37: 51–60. Edaphosauridae, Edaphosaurus, Glaucosaurus.

Modesto SP (1995), The skull of the herbivorous synapsid Edaphosaurus boanerges from the Lower Permian of Texas. Palaeontology, 38: 213–239. Edaphosauridae, Edaphosaurus,Sphenacodontia.

Modesto, SP, B Rubidge & J Welman (1999), The most basal anomodont therapsid and the primacy of Gondwana in the evolution of the anomodonts. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond, B 266: 331-337.  Neotherapsida.

Modesto SP & RR Reisz (1990), A new skeleton of Ianthosaurus hardestii, a primitive edaphosaur (Synapsida: Pelycosauria) from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Kansas. Can. J. Earth Sci. 27: 834-844. Edaphosauridae, Edaphosaurus,Ianthasaurus.

Modesto SP & RR Reisz (1990a), Taxonomic status of Edaphosaurus raymondi Case. J. Paleontol. 64: 1049-1051. Edaphosaurus,Ianthasaurus.

Modesto, SP & N Rybczynski (2000), The amniote faunas of the Russian Permian: implications for Late Permian terrestrial vertebrate biogeography, inMJ Benton, MA Shishkin, DM Unwin & EN Kurochkin (eds.), The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia, Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 17-34. Therapsida Overview

Modesto, S, CA Sidor, BS Rubidge & J Welman (2001), A second varanopseid skull from the Upper Permian of South Africa: implications for Late Permian 'pelycosaur' evolution. Lethaia 34: 249-259. Elliotsmithia, Mycterosaurinae, Varanodontinae, Varanopseidae.

Moller, P (1995), Electric Fishes: History and Behavior, Chapman & Hall, 584 pp. Neoselachii Overview; Torpediniformes.

Molnar, RE (1991), Fossil reptiles of Australia, in P Vickers-Rich, JM Monaghan, RF Baird & TH Rich (eds.), Vertebrate Paleontology of Australia. Pioneer Design Studio (Melbourne), pp.605-689. Cimoliasaurus, Muttaburrasaurus.

Monbaron, M (1978), Nouveaux ossements de dinosauriens de grande taille dans le bassin Jurasso-Crétacé de Taguelft (Atlas de Beni-Mellal, Maroc). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris (Sér. D) 287: 1277-1279. Rebbachisaurus.

Monbaron, M, DA Russell & P Taquet (1999), Atlasaurus imelakein.g., n.sp., a brachiosaurid-like sauropod from the Middle Jurassic of MoroccoC.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sci ter. plan.329: 519–526.  Atlasaurus.

Montellano, M, A Weil & WA Clemens (2000), An exceptional specimen of Cimexomys judithae (Mammalia: Multituberculata) from the Campanian Two Medicine Formation of Montana, and the phylogenetic status of Cimexomys. J. Vert. Paleontol. 20: 333-340. Cimolodonta.

Motani, R (1997), Temporal and spatial distribution of tooth implantation in ichthyosaurs, inJM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles.  Academic Press. pp. 81-103. Cymbospondylus, Grippidia, Ichthyopterygia, Merriamosauria, Mixosaurus, ShastasauriaTooth Implantation, Utatsusaurus

Motani, R (1999), On the evolution and homologies of ichthyopterygian forelimbsJ. Vert. Paleontol.19: 28-41.  Shastasauria.   

Motani, R, N Minoura & T Ando (1998), Ichthyosaurian relationships illuminated by new primitive skeletons from Japan. Nature 393: 255-257. Grippidia, Ichthyopterygia, Neodiapsida, Utatsusaurus.

Motta, PJ & CD Wilga (1999), Anatomy of the feeding apparatus of the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratumJ. Morphol.241:33–60.  Diplocercides.   

Mouchaty, SK, A Gullberg, A Janke, & U Arnason, (2000), Phylogenetic position of the Tenrecs (Mammalia: Tenrecidae) of Madagascar based on analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Echinops telfairi, Zool. Scripta29: 307-317.  Insectivora, Tenrecoidea.

Mouchaty, SK, A Gullberg, A Janke, & U Arnason, (2000a), The phylogenetic position of the Talpidae within Eutheria based on analysis of complete mitochondrial sequences, Mol. Biol. Evol.17: 60-67.  Erinaceomorpha.   

Moy-Thomas, JA & RS Miles (1971), Palaeozoic Fishes(2nd ed.). Chapman & Hall. Onychodontiformes, Strunius.

Müller, AH (1968), Lehrbuch der Paläozoologie, vol.II part 1 (Vertebrates). Rhinesuchidae.

Müller, AH (1985), Lehrbuch der Paläozoologie - Bd.III, Vertebraten.Gustav Fischer Verlag, 665 pp. Anteosaurus, Deuterosaurus  

Müller, J & RR Reisz (2005), An early captorhinid reptile (Amniota: Eureptilia) from the Upper Carboniferous of Hamilton, KansasJ. Vert. Paleontol.23: 561-568. Muller  Amniota, Captorhinidae, Concordia, Eureptilia.  

Murry, PA (1986), Vertebrate paleontology of the Dockum Group inK Padian (ed.), The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs. Cambridge Univ. Press. Desmatosuchus, Longosuchus, Paratypothorax, Poposauridae, Pseudopalatus, Stagonolepis.


Nelson, JS (1984), Fishes of the World (2nd ed.), Wiley, 523 pp. Torpediniformes

Nelson, JS (1994), Fishes of the World (3rd ed.), Wiley. Carcharhiniformes; Dallia, Esociformes, Esox, Galeomorphii; Heterodontiformes; Lamniformes; Neoselachii; Novumbra, Orectolobiformes, Umbra

Newbrey MG, MVH Wilson & AC Ashworth (2005), Growth characteristics of Cretaceous and Cenozoic North American Esociformes: implications for systematics, inFJ Poyato-Ariza (ed.), 4th International Meeting on Mesozoic Fishes: Systematics, Homology, and Nomenclature: Extended Abstracts, pp 201-204. Esociformes.

Nilsson, T. (1946), A new find of Gerrothorax rhaeticus Nilsson a plagiosaurid from the Rhaetic of Scania. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F.(2) 42(10). Plagiosauridae.

Norman, DB (1990), A review of Vectisaurus valdensis, with comments on the family Iguanodontidae, in K Carpenter & PJ Currie (eds.), Dinosaur Systematics: Perspectives and Approaches. Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 147-161. Altirhinus, Hadrosauridae, Hadrosauroidea, Jugals, Nanyangosaurus, Ouranosaurus.

Norman, DB & H-D Sues (2000), Ornithopods from Kazakhstan, Mongolia and Siberia, in MJ Benton, MA Shshkin, DM Unwin & EN Kurochkin (eds.), The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia. Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 462-479. Altirhinus

Norman, DB & DB Weishampel (1990), Iguanodontidae and related ornithopods in DB Weishampel, P Dodson, & H Osmólka (eds.), The Dinosauria. Univ. Calif. Press, pp. 510-533. Ouranosaurus.

Norman, JE & MV Ashley (2000), Phylogenetics of Perissodactyla and tests of the molecular clockJ. Mol. Evol.50: 11-21   Hippomorpha.    

Nosotti, S & G Pinna (1999), Skullanatomy of Protenodontosaurus italicusPinna 1990 (Reptilia: Placodontia)Paleontol. Lombarda n.s.11 (17 pp.).  

Novas, FE (1996), Dinosaur monophyly. J. Vert. Paleontol. 16: 723-741. Pterodactyloidea

Novas, FE (1997), Anatomy of Patagonykus puertai(Theropoda, Avialae, Alvarezsauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of PatagoniaJ. Vert. Paleontol.17: 137-166.  Alvarezsauridae, Alvarezsaurus, Mononykus, Patagonykus.  

Новицкая, ЛИ (1986), "Древнейшие бесчелюстные СССР: Гетеростраки:  Циaтacпиды, Aмфиacпиды, Птepacпиды." Труды ПИН219: 159c. [Novitskaya, LI (1986), The most ancient agnathans of the USSR: Heterostraci: Cyathaspidae, Amphiaspidae, PteraspidaeTrudy Paleontol. Inst. Nauk 219: 159 pp.]  My thanks to Dr. Stella Fitzgibbon for assistance with the translation.  Amphiaspidida, Amphiaspidoidei, Ctenaspis, Hibernaspidoidei, Siberiaspidoidei.  

Nowak, RM (ed.) (1991), Walker's Mammals of the World (5th ed.), Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1629 pp. (2 vols). Autoceta, Cetacea, Chrysochloroidea, Erinaceinae, Erinaceomorpha, Hylomyinae, Insectivora, Lorisiformes, Macroscelidea, Mysticeti, Odontoceti, Physeteroidea, Solenodontidae, Soricidae, Talpoidea, Tenrecoidea

Nydam, RL (2000), A new taxon of helodermatid-like lizard from the Albian-Cenomanian of Utah. J. Vert. Paleontol. 20: 285-294. Anguimorpha; Monstersauria.


O'Keefe, FR, O Rieppel & PM Sander (1999), Shape disassociation and inferred heterochrony in a clade of pachypleurosaurs (Reptilia, Sauropterygia)Paleobiology25: 504-517. Neusticosaurus, Pachypleurosauridae

O'Reilly, JC, RA Nussbaum & D Boone (1996), Vertebrate with protrusible eyes. Nature 382: 33. H. Gymnophiona.

O'Reilly, JC, DA Ritter & DR Carrier (1997), Hydrostatic locomotion in a limbless tetrapod. Nature 386:269-272. Gymnophiona.

Olsen, PE & H-D Sues (1986), The Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod transition, inK Padian (ed.), The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs. Vulcanodontidae.

Olsen, PE, H-D Sues & MA Norell (2000), First Record of Erpetosuchus(Reptilia: Archosauria) from the Late Triassic of North America. J. Vert. Paleontol. 20: 633–636.  Erpetosuchus, Gracilisuchus

Olshevsky, G (1994), The origin and evolution of the heterodontosaurians (unpub. English text). Genasauria.

Olson, EC (1962), Late Permian terrestrial vertebrates, USA and USSR, Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc.52(2). Anteosauria, Doliosauriscus, Syodon.

Olson EC (1968), The family Caseidae. Fieldiana 17: 225-349. Edaphosaurus, Lupeosaurus.

Olson, SL (1999), The anseriform relationships of Anatalavis Olson and Parris (Anseranatidae), with a new species from the lower Eocene London Clay. Smithsonian Contribs. Paleobiol.89: 231-243.  Anatalavis, Anatidae, Cnemiornis, Presbyornithidae

Olson, SL & A Feduccia (1980), Presbyornis and the origin of the Anseriformes (Aves, Charadrimorphae). Smithsonian Contribs. Zool.323, 24 pp. Galloanserae, Presbyornis

Olson, SL & DC Parris (1987), The Cretaceous birds of New Jersey. Smithsonian Contribs. Paleobiol.63, 22 pp.  Anatalavis, Anseres.


Padian, K (1997a), Pterosauria, inCurrie, PJ and K Padian (eds.), Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs Academic Press, pp. 613-617. Pterosauria.

Padian, K, JR Hutchinson & TR Holtz, Jr. (1999), Phylogenetic definitions and nomenclature of the major taxonomic categories of the carnivorous Dinosauria (Theropoda). J. Vert. Paleontol. 19: 69-80. Allosauridae, Allosauroidea, Aves Overview, Carinatae, Carnosauria, Ceratosauria, Coelurosauria, Maniraptora, Metornithes, Ornithothoraces, Ornithurae, Sinraptoridae, Tetanurae, Theropoda.

Padian, K & M Smith (1992), New light on Late Cretaceous pterosaur material from Montana. J. Vert Paleontol. 12: 87-92. Azhdarchoidea; Ornithocheiroidea, Pterodactyloidea, Pterosauria, Rhamphorhynchoidea

Page, LM & BM Burr (1991), A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., 432 pp.  Dallia, Esociformes, Esox, Novumbra, Umbra.  

Paladino, FV, JR Spolita & P Dodson (1997), A blueprint for giants: modeling the physiology of large dinosaurs, in Farlow, JO & MK Brett-Surman (eds.), The Complete Dinosaur, pp. 491-504. Titanosauria.

Parks, P (1969), Cranial Anatomy and Mastication of the Triassic Reptile Trilophosaurus. M.A. thesis, U. Texas. 88 pp. Braincase Overview, Trilophosauridae.

Parrish, JM (1993), Phylogeny of the Crocodylotarsi, with reference to archosaurian and crurotarsan monophyly, J. Vert. Paleontol.13: 287-308. Aetosauridae, Archosauria, Batrachotomus, Crocodylomorpha, CrurotarsiEuparkeriidae, Gracilisuchus, Ornithodira, Ornithosuchidae, Poposauridae, Prestosuchidae, Proterochampsidae, Rauisuchia, Rauisuchidae, Riojasuchus, Saurosuchus, Suchia, Ticinosuchus.

Parrish, JM (1994), Cranial osteology of Longosuchus meadeiand the phylogeny and distribution of the Aetosauria, J. Vert. Paleontol., 14: 196-209 - abstractAetosaurus, Longosuchus, Stagonolepis

Patterson B (1977), A primitive pyrothere (Mammalia, Notoungulata) from the Early Tertiary of northwestern Venezuela. Fieldiana Geol. 33: 397-422. Notoungulata.  

Patterson, C (1965), The phylogeny of the chimaeroids. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B249: 101-219. Chimaeriformes, Chimaeroidei, Holocephali, Menaspidae, Myriacanthoidei.

Patterson, C (1992), Interpretation of the toothplates of chimaeroid fishesZool. J. Linn. Soc.106: 33-61.  Holocephali.

Perle, A, MA Norell, LM Chiappe & JM Clark (1993), Flightless bird from the Cretaceous of MongoliaNature362: 623-626. Metornithes, Mononykus, Ornithothoraces

Peters, D (1997), A new phylogeny for the Pterosauria. J. Vert. Paleontol. 17: 69A [abstract]. Ctenochasmatoidea, Pterodactyloidea.

Peters, H, B Wilm, N Sakai, K Imai, R Maas & R Balling (1999), Pax1and Pax9synergistically regulate vertebral column developmentDevelopment126: 5399-5408.  Teeth

Petronio, C (1995), Note on the taxonomy of Pleistocene hippopotamusesIbex3:53-55.  WWWHippopotamidae.

Piotrowski, T & C Nüsslein-Volhard (2000), The endoderm plays an important in patterning the segmented pharyngeal region in zebrafish (Danio rerio)Devel. Biol.225: 339–356.  Teeth.

Piotrowski, T, TF Schilling, M Brand, Y-J Jiang, C-P Heisenberg, D Beuchle, H Grandel, FJM van Eeden, M Furutani-Seiki, M Granato, P Haffter, M Hammerschmidt, DA Kane, RN Kelsh, MC Mullins, J Odenthal, RM Warga & C Nüsslein-Volhard (1996), Jaw and branchial arch mutants in zebrafish II: anterior arches and cartilage differentiation. Development 123: 345-356 (abstract only). Meckel's Cartilage.  

Pisani, D, AM Yates, MC Langer & MJ Benton (2001), A genus-level supertree of the DinosauriaProc. R. Soc. Lond. B01pb0724, 7 pp.  

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