The Vertebrates Squalea

Neoselachii: Squalea

Abbreviated Dendrogram
Chondrichthyes │ └─Neoselachii ├─Galeomorphii │ ├─Orectolobiformes │ └─┬─Carcharhiniformes │ └─Lamniformes └─Squalea ├─Squalomorpha └─┬─Protospinax └─Hypnosqualea ├─Rajiformes └─Myliobatoidei


Taxa on This Page

  1. Protospinax X
  2. Squalea
  3. Squalomorpha



Range: From the Triassic or Jurassic.

Neoselachii: Galeomorphii + * : Squalomorpha + (Protospinax + Hypnosqualea).

$ Ectethmoid process absent; $ loss of suborbital shelf; $ orbitostylic jaw suspension; $ basitrabecular process (?) present; $ precaudal hemal arches complete; $ dorsal fin with basal but no spine.

Links: Changes in Shark Classification; Squalea - families.

deCarvalho 1996); Shirai (1996).



From the Triassic or Jurassic.

Squalea : (Protospinax + Hypnosqualea) + *.

Scoop-shaped rostrum; spiracle large; fin spines present; no anal fin; benthonic, cold marine.

Links: Courtnay Museum:Animal Classification; Squalomorpha; Miss A Wittrick; CARTILAGINOUS FISHES;  ATW021204.

ProtospinaxProtospinax: Woodward 1919. P. annectans.

Range: Early Jurassic (Toarcian) to Late Jurassic of Europe.

Phylogeny: Squalea :: Hypnosqualea + *.

Characters: ~170 cm; teeth with moderate labial visor [K03]; may be hump-like structure is indicated just below the apex on the lingual face [K03]; triangular and elongate and/or massive lingual uvula [K03]; labial face triangular in labial view and more or less flat [K03]; basal edge of the labial face is concave [K03]; cutting edge is continuous and rectilinear without any crenulations or serrations [K03]; lateral cusplets absent [K03]; teeth with central foramen  [K03]; broad pectoral fins; pelvic fins anterior and overlapped by pectorals.

Note: believed to be a squalean and sister to Hypnosqualea (batoids + pristids + squatinoids)

Links: SharkFriends Paleo-Shark Page; ABSTRACTS - Part 1: Amesbury through Ellis; SansTitre; tiburonesg.html; Hors-série Requins; jurasico.htm Spanish); The American Elasmobranch Society Hompage; Helicoprion (recreación) Helicoprion (fósil) Echinochimaera ( ....; Articles - Dino Hunter cites to two newish articles); Neoselachian remains (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the ... description of some tooth species).

Protospinax tooth. Kriwet (2003).

References: Kriwet (2003) [K03], Maisey (1993)  ATW040722.

checked ATW040722