The Vertebrates A-C

Taxon Index: A-C

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  1. Acanthodiformes X: a long-lived group of very Osteichthyan-like acanthodians
  2. Acanthodii X: the other teleostomes, sister of Osteichthyes, with the skull based on large cartilaginous plates and with many fin spines
  3. Acanthomorpha: a big fish clade, including tunas, basses, flounders, cods, and billfishes among many others.
  4. Acanthostega X: the most basal well-known tetrapod
  5. Achoania X:  the sister of crown group Sarcopterygii?
  6. Acipenseriformes: sturgeons, paddlefish & extinct relatives
  7. Acrocanthosaurus X: an Albian-Aptian theropod -- and contender for largest land predator of all time
  8. Acrochordoidea: wart snakes or file snakes
  9. Acrodonta: acrodont lizards, i.e. agamids, chamaeleons and that lot.
  10. Actinistia: the coelacanth group, odd lobe-finned fish with poorly known relationships
  11. Actinolepida X: a cosmopolitan placoderm group closely related to the phylolepidids
  12. Actinolepidoidei X: actinolepids + phylolepidids
  13. Actinopteri: all actinopterygians (ray-finned fish) except the very primitive Cladistia
  14. Actinopterygii: the ray-finned fish
  15. Adapiformes X: the extinct (Paleocene to Miocene) sister group of the lorises and lemurs
  16. Adelogyrinidae X: another strange and poorly-known Carboniferous lepospondyl group with a long trunk, but with limb girdles, orbits very far forward.
  17. Aegyptosaurus X: an Early Cretaceous African sauropod just basal to the Titanosauria
  18. Aepyornithiformes X: the elephant birds of Pleistocene Madagascar
  19. Aerosaurus X: a Permo-Carboniferous varanodont "pelycosaur," more robust than most in the family
  20. Aetosauridae X: also known as Stagnolepidae -- armored suchian vegetarians of the Triassic
  21. Aetosaurus X: a smallish aetosaur with square armor plates
  22. Agamidae: Old World iguanas; a diverse group of evil-looking lizards with names like Draco and Moloch
  23. Aigialosauridae X: late Mesozoic aquatic reptiles from Europe, sister group of the mosasaurs
  24. Aïstopoda X: snake-like Permo-Carboniferous lepospondyls
  25. Alamosaurus X: a Late Cretaceous titanosaurid immigrant to North America
  26. Albertosaurus X: a Late Cretaceous, more northerly cousin of Tyrannosaurus
  27. Alectrosaurus X: an Asian relative of Tyrannosaurus
  28. Allenypterus X:a weird Bear Gulch actinistian
  29. Alethinophidia: all snakes except the "blind snakes"
  30. Alligatoridae: alligators, caimans, and a few others
  31. Allosauridae X: Allosaurus and Acrocanthosaurus -- Late Mesozoic carnosaurs
  32. Allosauroidea X: all the carnosaurs except some early odd-balls
  33. Allotheria X: haramyids and multituberculates. This clade may or may not exist.
  34. Altirhinus X: Cretaceous hadrosauroid, sister of the Hadrosauridae.
  35. Altungulata: horses > cows
  36. Alvarezsauridae X: Late Cretaceous flightless birds with very wide distribution -- and very peculiar arms.
  37. Alvarezsaurus X: a large and poorly known basal Alvarezsaurid from South America
  38. Alxasaurus X: a primitive therizinosaur from the Albian of China
  39. Ambulocetidae X: "walking whales" -- early amphibious cetaceans from the Middle Eocene
  40. Ameridelphia: South American marsupials
  41. Amiidae: probably Amiopsis + Amia -- the Late Mesozoic, Tethys-based branch of the Amiiformes
  42. Amiiformes: probably the original (Triassic) worldwide radiation of medium-sized freshwater neopterygians
  43. Amiinae: the bowfin, Amia and its closest relatives
  44. Amiopsis X: a Late Mesozoic European member of the Amiidae -- perhaps a staple of Archaeopteryx
  45. Amniota: fully land-adapted tetrapods
  46. Ampelosaurus X: a primitive, but very late, armored titanosaur, from the Maastrichtian of Europe
  47. Amphiaspidida X: really strange, highly armored, jawless fishes from the Devonian of Russia
  48. Amphiaspidoidei X: the most extreme of the amphiaspids
  49. Amphibolurinae: Australian agamid lizards
  50. Amphilestes X: a Middle Jurassic triconodont mammal with interlocking molars
  51. Amphisbaena: secretive legless lizards
  52. Anagalida: rabbits, rodents and elephant shrews
  53. Anagalidae X: poorly known and rarely studied rabbit/rodent cousins from the Paleogene
  54. Anagaloidea X: more of the same
  55. Anapsida: one of the four great amniote clades, this group includes pareiasaurs, turtles, and bolosaurs
  56. Anarosaurus X: a small Middle Triassic pachypleurosaur with disproportionately long hind legs
  57. Anaspida X: odd, very basal and early jawless fishes without shields (hence the name) and with numerous gill openings in a slanting line
  58. Anatalavis X: Cretaceous to Eocene goose/duck, sister of the magpie goose of Australia.
  59. Anatidae: the crown group of living ducks, geese & swans
  60. Anatinae: ducks
  61. Anatini: dabbling ducks
  62. Anatoidea: ducks, swans, most geese & close relatives
  63. Anatolepis X: very early jawless fish from the Ordovician of North America
  64. Anchisaurus X: a rather basal prosauropod from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of North America and perhaps elsewhere
  65. Andesaurus X: big, relatively basal titanosaur from South America
  66. Angistorhinus X: a Carnian phytosaur with a tall skull and down-turned rostrum
  67. Anguimorpha: the clade uniting anguimorph and varanoid lizards
  68. Anguoidea: Xenosaurus, anguid lizards, shinisaurs, etc.
  69. Angusaurus X: a long-snouted trematosaurid temnospondyl from the Early Triassic of Russia.
  70. Anhimidae: screamers
  71. Aniliidae: the false coral snake of South America
  72. Aniloidea: an almost extinct snake group, sister of the macrostomates
  73. Ankylosauria X: ankylosaurs and nodosaurs
  74. Ankylosauridae X: Ankylosaurus > Nodosaurus
  75. Ankylosauromorpha X: probably Ankylosaurus > Stegosaurus
  76. Anchipteraspididae X: small pteraspidid Siluro-Devonian jawless fishes which resemble cyathaspidiforms in having a single, fused branchio- cornual plate
  77. Anomalepididae: a small family of larger, South American scolecophidians ("blind snakes")
  78. Anomochilidae: Anomochilus, a very strange and derived aniloid snake
  79. Anomodontia X: dicynodonts and other toothless Permo-Triassic therapsids
  80. AnoplosuchusX: an early (Permian) and basal dicynodont therapsid
  81. Anoplotheroidea X: an early Neogene ungulate group, convergent on camels
  82. Anotophysi: milkfishes and other freshwater teleosts without Weberian ossicles
  83. Anseranas: the magpie goose of Australia & New Guinea
  84. Anseres: ducks, geese & swans
  85. Anseriformes: ducks > chickens. Of extant birds, ducks, geese, swans, & screamers.
  86. Anserinae: geese & swans
  87. Anteosauria X: the first really succesful therapsids, from the later Permian of Africa, Asia & China
  88. Anteosauridae X: rather dog-like carniverous Permian therapsids
  89. Anteosaurinae X: large, Late Permian anteosaurs with oddly short legs.
  90. Anteosaurus X: well-known standard bearer of the family Anteosauridae
  91. Anthracosauroidea X: embolomeres, gephyrostegids and a few other Late Paleozoic tetrapod odds and ends
  92. Anthracotheroidea X: Eocene artiodactyl group of uncertain composition, probably close to hippos.
  93. Anthropoidea: Texans > tarsiers, including apes, monkeys and people
  94. Antiarcha X: one of the two big placoderm clades, this is the Bothriolepis, bug-like group
  95. Anura: crown group frogs
  96. Apalolepididae X: a scale family of Early Devonian theolodontid thelodonts
  97. Apatosaurinae X: Apatosaurus, the former Brontosaurus.
  98. Apodiformes: hummingbirds and swifts
  99. Apternodontidae X: Eocene to Oligocene proto-shrews from North America.
  100. Apterygiformes: kiwis
  101. Archaeornithes X: Archaeopteryx
  102. Araeoscelidans X: Permo-Carboniferous lizard-like critters who form one of the anchors for the crown group Diapsida.
  103. Aragosaurus X: a primitive macronarian sauropod, from the Early Cretaceous of Europe
  104. Arandaspida X:a very early (Ordovician) line of pteraspidomorph fishes
  105. Archaeonectrus X: : a basal pliosauroid from the Early Jurassic of Europe
  106. ArchaeosyodonX: a basal ?anteosaurian dinocephalian from the Middle Permian of Russia with a deep and massive skull
  107. Archaeothyris X: a Late Carboniferous "pelycosaur" from Canada, the oldest synapsid known from reasonably good remains.
  108. Archegosauroidea X: big, rather slim and croc-like temnospondyls from the Permian
  109. Archonta: a big, important, but still uncertain clade including primates, tree shrews and bats.
  110. Archosauria: rocs + crocs, a big crown group also including dinosaurs and (probably) pterosaurs
  111. Archosauriformes: an arbitrary rest stop between Archosauromorpha and Archosauria, defined as Proterosuchus + birds.
  112. Archosauromorpha: drakes > snakes. One of the two complementary reptile clades making up the Sauria.
  113. Arctostylopida X: the most primitive paraxonic (cows > horses) ungulates, mostly from the Paleocene of Laurasia
  114. Argentinasaurus X: perhaps the largest land animal ever, and perhaps the most frequently misspelled dinosaur, a huge sauropod from the Early Cretaceous of you-know-where
  115. Argentiniformes: herring, smelt, etc.
  116. Arthrodira X: placoderms with a movable joint between the head and body, including the famous Dunkleosteus.
  117. Artiodactyla: cows > whales, perhaps, or sows + cows.
  118. Ascidiacea: Classic urochordates with "tadpole" larvae and sessile adult.
  119. Asioryctitheria X: Epitherians, but no one knows what sort....
  120. Asterolepidoidei X: some late and deviant antiarch placoderms with simplified pectoral limbs/fins and very long armor
  121. Astraspidae X: Ordovician fishes with tessellated armor and large, mushroom-shaped dentine tubercles
  122. Ateleaspis X: our favorite osteostracan, which has always reminded us of an "Ironclad" from the American Civil War.
  123. Atlasaurus X: an early brachiosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Africa
  124. Atractaspididae: very basal colubrid snakes
  125. Attenborosaurus X: an early plesiosaur
  126. Ausktribosphenidae X: An extinct group of Cretaceous Australian tribosphenic mammals which are, or have a striking dental similarity to, placental mammals.
  127. Australidelphia: the Australian radiation of marsupials
  128. Australosphenida: Gondwanan mammaliaforms with convergently derived tribosphenic molars.
  129. Autoceta: crown group cetaceans (whales and dolphins)
  130. Aves: Archaeopteryx + living birds
  131. Avetheropoda: Allosaurus + birds
  132. Aythyini: diving or bay ducks, scaups, and pochards
  133. Azemiopinae: The poorly known Fea's Viper of Tibet
  134. Azhdarchoidea X: Quetzalcoatlus and related pterosaurs


  1. Balognathidae X: a group of prionodontidan conodonts
  2. Bandringidae X: small ctenacanthiform sharks with hugely elongated rostra from the Late Carboniferous of North America
  3. Baphetes X: a well-known baphetid (proto-temnospondyl) from the Late Carboniferous of Europe and North America
  4. Baphetidae X: a strange group of Late Carboniferous amphibians with "keyhole" orbits
  5. Barapasaurus X: an early, perhaps the earliest, really big sauropod (14-18 m), sister of the Eusauropoda, from the Early Jurassic of India
  6. Barbereniidae X: a probably non-existent group of Late Cretaceous South American symmetrodonts.
  7. Barosaurus X: a big, Late Jurassic African diplodocine sauropod.
  8. Basilosauridae: in essence all whales in which the pelvis has lost contact with the spine.
  9. Basilosaurus X: a big serpentine whale from the Middle Eocene
  10. Batomorphii: modern rays and skates
  11. Batrachosauria: Seymouria + Jane Seymour -- amniotes and their close relatives
  12. Batrachotomus X: the dominant predator of the Lower Keuper
  13. Baurusuchidae X: terrestrial crocs who looked like therapsids, from the Late Cretaceous of South America
  14. Beipiaosaurus X: a feathered therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China
  15. Benneviaspidida X: Early Devonian cornuate osteostracans with particularly elaborate head shields
  16. Biarmosuchia X: the most basal therapsids known from well-preserved fossils
  17. Biarmosuchidae X:  Biarmosuchus, a biarmosuchian of rather light and open construction
  18. Bienotherium X: an Early Jurassic cynodont from China
  19. Birgeriidae X: Triassic fish closely related to the sturgeon
  20. Bishanopliosaurus X: a poorly known pliosaur from the Early Jurassic of China
  21. Bocatherium X: a cynognathian cynodont from the Middle Jurassic of Mexico
  22. Boidea: boas and pythons
  23. Bolosauridae X: an odd group of lizard-like anapsids from the Late Permian
  24. Bolotridon X: an Early Triassic galesaurid cynodont from South Africa
  25. Archipelepididae X: a scale taxon of thelodonts, quite similar to Turinia, but earlier and with different ornament and very large scale bases, from the Silurian of Canada.
  26. Bothremydidae X: an extinct, mostly Cenozoic, group of mostly Laurasian pleurodire turtles
  27. Bothriolepidoidei X: Bothriolepis and closely related antiarch placoderms of the later Devonian
  28. Bothriospondylus X: a large European brachiosaurid sauropod of the Late Jurassic
  29. Bovoidea: cattle, sheep goats, etc.
  30. Brachauchenius X: a Late Cretaceous pliosaur from North America
  31. Brachiosauridae X: sister group to the titanosaurs
  32. Brachiosaurus X possibly the largest tetrapod ever
  33. Brachyopidae X: late, long-lived family of temnospondyls with short, broad flat skulls with large eyes situated far forward
  34. Brachyopoidea X: the last temnospondyls
  35. Brachypterygius X: Jurassic ichthyosaur distiguished by very broad fore-paddles.
  36. Brachysuchus X  a very large Late Triassic phytosaur
  37. Bradysaurs X : large primitive pareiasaurs from the Middle Permian of South Africa
  38. Brithopodidae X: a minor family of anteosaurs from the Late Permian of Russia, probably synonymous with Anteosauridae
  39. Brithopus X: the standard-bearer of the previous family
  40. Broomistega X: a rhinesuchid temnospondyl from the Early Triassic of South Africa
  41. Bulbulodentata X: a non-South American stem group of the endemic South African ungulates


  1. Cabonnichthys X: an odd Australian tristichopterid (osteolepiform) fish from the Famennian
  2. Caenophidia: all derived poisonous snakes and close relatives
  3. Caeciliidae: a large group of caecilians, probably paraphyletic
  4. Californosaurus X: a medium-large ichthyosaur from the Late Triassic of North America
  5. Camarasauridae X: a small family of basal macronarian sauropods
  6. Camarasaurus X: a very well known Apatosaur-like sauropod from the Late Jurassic of North America.
  7. Camelidae: camels
  8. Campylognathoidea X: an early group of pterosaurs, including Eudimorphodon.  
  9. Canowindridae X: Late Devoinian Australian osteolepiforms
  10. Capitosauria X: large to huge Triassic temnospondyls
  11. Capitosauridae X: Late Triassic capitosauroids
  12. Caprimulgiformes: nightjars, night hawks, potoos, oilbirds, etc.
  13. Captorhinidae X: one of two succesful groups of early (eu)reptiles
  14. Carcharhiniformes: typical nasty-looking galeomorph sharks
  15. Carcharodontosauridae X: large late Allosaur cousins
  16. Caridosuctor X: an actinistian from Bear Gulch
  17. Carinatae: Ichthyornis plus living birds.
  18. Carnosauria X: Allosaurus and close relatives
  19. Caseasauria X: the earliest branch from the synapsid tree
  20. Caseidae X: the first herbivorous synapsids
  21. Casuariformes: emus and cassowaries
  22. Caturoidea X: Jurassic cousins of Amia
  23. Cedarosaurus X: Early Cretaceous brachiosaur from North America
  24. Centrosaurinae X: Styracosaurus and close relatives
  25. Cephalaspidida X: a group of cornuate osteostracans (jawless fish) from the Early Devonian of Europe
  26. Cephalaspidomorphi X: a term we've recycled to mean Osteostraci + Galeaspida (big group of jawless fishes)
  27. Cephalochordata: amphioxus -- the sister group to Chordata
  28. Cerapoda X: hadrosaurs + ceratopsians
  29. Ceratopsia X: all Marginocephalia except the pachycephalosaurs
  30. Ceratopsinae X: the immediate family of Triceratops
  31. Ceratosauria X: coelophysids, abelisaurs and other non-tetanuran theropod dinosaurs
  32. Ceresiosaurus X: a nothosaur from the Middle Triassic seas of Europe
  33. Cervoidea: deer, elk, moose and similar ruminants
  34. Cetacea: dolphins > deer -- the whales, dolphins and their older cousins
  35. Cetartiodactyla: deer + dolphins
  36. Cetiosauridae X: a rather early, unspecialized sauropod from the Middle & Late Jurassic.
  37. Chaliminia X: a very early (Late Triassic) trithelodont
  38. Chamaeleonidae: chameleons
  39. Champsosauridae X: a long-lived & well-known family of the odd Choristodera, crocodile analogues
  40. Charadriiformes: gulls, auks & relatives.
  41. Charadriomorphae: most modern shore birds, pigeons and parrots
  42. Cheirolepis X: a Devonian fish, about the most basal form we know of with approximately "standard" dermal skull bones
  43. Chelidae: Small to medium-sized "snake-neck" aquatic turtles of Australia & South America.
  44. Chialingosaurus X: an early Chinese stegosaurid -- more gracile than Stegosaurus
  45. Chigutisauridae X: the last temnospondyls (unless frogs are temnospondyls), from as late as the Jurassic
  46. Chimaeriformes: probably Myriacanthus + Chimaera, living chimaeras and close relatives
  47. Chimaeroidei: the crown group of living chimaeras
  48. Chiroptera: bats
  49. Chondrichthyes: the shark leg of the eugnathostome crown group, hence sharks > lawyers.
  50. Chondrichthyes (Crown): chimaeras + living sharks, the crown group of living chondrichthyans
  51. Chondrostei: the sturgeon stem group, caviar > lox.
  52. Chordata: everything in Palaeos Vertebrates: urochordates + vertebrates, or tunicates + tuna.
  53. Chrysochloroidea: the "golden moles" of southern Africa.
  54. Chthomaloporus X: a poorly known Russian (mid to Late Permian) anteosaur
  55. Chubutisaurus X: a South American sauropod from the middle Cretaceous, possibly sister to the Titanosauria
  56. Chuchinolepidae X: basal antiarch placoderms from the Early Devonian of China
  57. Chunkingosaurus X: Late Jurassic Chinese stegosaur
  58. Cichlidae: cichlids
  59. Ciconiidae: storks
  60. Ciconiiformes: storks, herons, egrets, ibis, etc.
  61. Ciconiimorphae: most modern shorebirds
  62. Cimoliasauridae X: a poorly known family of mostly Cretaceous plesiosaurs
  63. Cimoliasaurus X: a plesiosaur from the middle to Late Cretaceous of Australia
  64. Cimolodonta X: late-surviving Cretaceous and Paleocene multituberculates with long snouts and a huge, medial incisor
  65. Cladistia: an ancient order of actinopterygian fishes with heavy enameled scales, of which only the bichirs and reedfish survive
  66. Cladoselachida X: a very successful group of Late Devonian sharks with large pectoral fins, but otherwise rather modern-looking
  67. Cladotheria: the clade uniting dryolestoids with therian mammals
  68. Claudiosaurus X: a very primitive marine, neodiapsid reptile, from the Late Permian of Madagascar.
  69. Clevosaurs X: the sister group of Sphenodon, mostly Jurassic
  70. Climatiiformes X: the most basal group of acanthodians, from the Late Silurian to Early Carboniferous.
  71. Clupeocephala: the clade uniting the herring - anchovy group with the euteleosts
  72. Clupeomorpha: fish in tin cans -- anchovy, herring and sardines.
  73. Cnemiornis X: an extinct goose from the Pleistocene & Holocene of New Zealand
  74. Coahomasuchus X: Late Triassic aetosaur, sister to Stagnolepis.
  75. Cochleosauridae X: primitive temnospondyls from the Late Carboniferous of Eastern Europe
  76. Cochliodontidae X: a surprisingly modern-looking group of mostly Permian holocephalians
  77. Coelurosauravidae X: very basal Permo-Triassic gliding diapsids of Europe, also known as Weigeltisauridae
  78. Coelurosauria: all theropods closer to birds than to Allosaurus.
  79. Coelurus X: a poorly-known basal coelurosaur from the Late Jurassic of North America
  80. Coliiformes: "mouse birds," good climbers with fluffy feathers
  81. Colosteidae X: Carboniferous amphibians, perhaps the sister group to the temnospondyls
  82. Colubridae: rat snakes, corn snakes, king snakes, garter snakes, indigo snakes, boomslangs, etc.
  83. Colubroidea: advanced, venomous snakes
  84. Columbiformes: doves, pigeons (e.g. Columba), Raphus (dodo), sand grouse.
  85. Colymbosaurus X: latest and largest of the Plesiosauroidea known from Jurassic England
  86. Compsognathidae X: small, light-bodies predators of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous.
  87. Concordia: X a small, basal captorhinid from the Pennsylvanian of Kansas
  88. Confuciusornithidae X: Primitive birds with extraordinarily long wing feathers and long caudal display plumage
  89. Conodonta X: very, very early jaws and teeth of poorly understood design and relationships.
  90. Cornuata X: a large & long-lived group of osteostracan fishes with pointed lateral processes (cornua) of the head shield
  91. Corosaurus X: perhaps the most basal known sauropterygian, from the Triassic of North America
  92. Corvaspididae X: Late Silurian & Early Devonian jawless fishes -- possibly stem cyathaspids
  93. Corvaspis X: the best known corvaspid
  94. Corveolepis X: a genus carved out of Corvaspis material
  95. Cotylosauria: diadectomorphs + crown group amniotes
  96. Cracidae: the colorful curassows, guans, and chachalacids
  97. Craniata: hags + hagfish
  98. Crassigyrinus X: an odd and evil-looking basal tetrapod (or near-tetrapod) with diminutive arms
  99. Crocidurinae: southern shrews
  100. Crocodylia: living crocs > dryosaurs
  101. Crocodylidae: crocodiles > alligators
  102. Crocodyliformes: crocodiles > Sphenosuchia
  103. Crocodylinae: the 12 living species of true crocodiles
  104. Crocodylomorpha: roughly speaking, the level at which crocs stopped trying to compete with dinosaurs
  105. Crotalinae: pit vipers
  106. Crurotarsi: crocs > dinosaurs
  107. Cryolophosaurus X: an Early Jurassic carnosaur from Antarctica (= "Elvisaurus")
  108. Cryptocleidoidea X: late Mesozoic short-necked plesiosaurs
  109. Cryptocleididae X: Cryptocleidus and immediate family 
  110. Cryptocleidus X: an early (Jurassic), successful member of the short-neck plesiosaur tribe.
  111. Cryptodira: today, the predominant turtle breed except in some Gondwanan lands
  112. Ctenacanthidae X: the dominant elasmobranch sharks of the Permian and Carboniferous
  113. Ctenacanthiformes: all elasmobranch sharks except the xenacanthids
  114. Ctenaspis X: a very peculiar-looking heterosracan jawless fish from the Early Devonian, probably the sister of all other amphiaspids
  115. Ctenochasmatoidea X: pterodactyloids with shallow keels and plantigrade feet, from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous
  116. Ctenosquamata: most Cenozoic teleosts
  117. Cuculidae: all cuculiforms except the roadrunner
  118. Cuculiformes: cuckoos, the roadrunner, and possibly a few others
  119. Cyathaspidida X: streamlined heterostracans with fusiform or cigar-shaped head-shields made up of two main components, dorsal and ventral epitega
  120. Cyathaspidiformes X: the amphiaspid-cyathaspid leg of crown group Heterostraci, Siluro-Devonian jawless fishes with big, unitary armors
  121. Cyclosquamata: deep sea teleosts with non-protrusible, toothed maxillae
  122. Cylindrophiidae: pipe snakes
  123. Cymbospondylus X: the most primitive of the Ichthyosauria
  124. Cynodontia: cynodonts
  125. Cynognathia X: Cynognathus > Sinocodon,  by our reckoning, the eucynodont branch that didn't lead to mammals
  126. Cynognathidae X: a paraphyletic cluster of basal cynognaths
  127. Cynosaurus X: a rather obscure Permian cynodont which is, despite the name, a galesaurid.
  128. Cypriniformes: carp, minnows, loaches and others

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