The Vertebrates Katoporida

Thelodonti: Katoporida

Katoporids & Phlebolepis

Abbreviated Dendrogram
Vertebrata ├─Conodonta └─┬─Pteraspidomorphi └─Thelodonti ├─┬─Furcacaudiformes │ └─Thelodontida └─┬─┬─Katoporida │ │ ├─Phlebolepis │ │ └─Katoporidae │ └─Cephalaspidomorphi │ ├─Galeaspida │ └─┬─Pituriaspida │ ├─Osteostraci │ └─Gnathostomata (conventional placement) └─┬─Loganiidae └─Gnathostomata (alternate placement) ├─Placodermi └─┬─Chondrichthyes └─Teleostomi


Taxa on This Page

  1. Katoporida X
  2. Katoporidae X
  3. Phlebolepis X

Katoporida: (= Phlebolepidida = Phlebolepidiformes [S+01]). Goniporus, Sandiva, Valyalepis, Zuegelepis.

Range: Late Ordovician to Early Devonian.

Phylogeny: Thelodonti::: Cephalaspidomorphi + *: Katoporidae + Phlebolepis.

Characters: anal fin present [DS01]; mesodentine in scales; relatively large scales [S+01]; base wider then crown [M86]; base with spur-like anterior projection [M86]; single, large, slightly concave pulp cavity and/or 1+ pulp canals present [S+01] [T+99]; dentine canals open into pulp cavity/canal [T+99]; numerous wide, branching dentine canals in crown [S+01]; most with crenulated head scales and grebeshki ornament on transitional scales [S+01]; trunk scales with longitudinal ridges which may be extended as spines [S+01]; lower crown surface ornamented only in Overia [S+01];

Links: Thelodonti

References: Blom & Goujet 2002) [BG02]; Donoghue & Smith (2001) [DS01]; Marss (1986) [M86]; Soehn et al. (2001) [S+01]; Turner et al. (1999) [T+99]. ATW030607.

Katoporidae: Helenolepis, Katoporodus, Katoporus, Overia

Range: Late Silurian (Pridoli)of Tuva, North America (Arctic Canada), Europe (incl. Wales), Greenland, Baltics, Russia. Probably extends to earliest Devonian (Lochkovian).

Phylogeny: Katoporida: Phlebolepis+ *.


References:   ATW051030 (no new information).

PhlebolepisPhlebolepis:  P. elegans Pander, 1856 (= Coelolepis luhai Hoppe, 1934); P. ornata Marss, 1986.

Range: Early Silurian (Llandovery) to Late Silurian (Ludlow?) of North America, Europe, Baltics, Russia & Siberia.

Phylogeny: Katoporida: Katoporidae + *.

Characters: small (<10cm) [T+99]; mouth subterminal and slit-like [M86]; rostrum blunt, with slightly rounded corners [M86]; head region somewhat dorsoventrally compressed [M86]; eyes lateral, immediately rostrum [M86]; two long, curved orbital scales flank eyes [M86] [J96] [T+99]; no visible boundary between head & trunk [M86]; trunk and tail laterally compressed [M86]; small dorsal & anal fins present [M86] [T+99]; caudal fin hypocercal [M86] Phlebolepis transitional & trunk scales from Karatajute-Talimaa & Marss (2002)[T+99]; unpaired fins similar to Loganellia [J96]; paired pectoral fins present [M86] [T+99]; pore-canal system with various lines & commisures, possibly like cyathaspids [J96] [T+99]; sensory lines present on both dorsal & ventral sides, extending to tail [J96]; scales relatively large (to 2.4 mm) [M86] [T+99]; unusually large number of scale forms on single organism, with transition through intermediate forms [T+99]; scales arranged in longitudinal & diagonal rows [M86]; scales frequently with "extreme thinning" [T+99]; base minimal [T+99] or toroidal, separated from crown by groove [M86] [T+99]; dentine canals/tubules arranged in rows where ornament is ridged [M86] [T+99]; pulp cavity very large [J96], with one pulp canal except in oral scales) [T+99]; pulp depression widely open [M86] [KM02]; typically, posterior wall of base "closed over to form" pulp canal [T+99]; one (& only one) short pulp canal present except in head scales [M86]; dentine canals & tubules penetrate crown [T+99]; crown rhombic or rounded [T+99]; posterior scale edges notched [M86]; head scales rhomboid, oval or rounded with prominent sculpturing [M86] [T+99]; head scales (P. elegans) wide & short with transverse angular ridge [M86] [KM02] or (P. ornata) long, with zig-zag longitudinal ridge [M86]; head scales with marginal notches [M86]; head scales with short ridges running posteromedially from the margin of the scale [M86]; head & transitional scale bases with small, vertical, bead-like swellings Phlebolepis scale types from Marss (1986) [M86]; head with non-imbricating scales [T+99]; transitional scales large, elongate, ovoid & flat, with low sculpture of multiple ridges anteriorly [M86] [T+99]; transitional scales large, with crown centrally smooth or single longitudinal ridge, small ridge ornamentation toward edges, small serrations posterolaterally [KM02]; transitional scales with notched crown or short ribs anteriorly [M86]; body scales imbricating [T+99]; posterior scales may show anterior spur from base [T+99]; trunk scales small, wedge-shaped & narrow (not particularly long) with ornament of multiple ("a few" [M86]) ridges [T+99]; trunk scales crown with strong longitudinal central ridge and additional ridges, parallel or fusing with central ridge [M86] [KM02]; trunk scales often with spur-like anterior projection from base [M86]; crown distinctively flat [T+99]; fin scales small, wedge-shaped & narrow, with anterior spur-like projection from base, crown with median ridge and 1+ pairs of additional ridges [M86].

Links: Evol.Page to Print- Clado Pic. Resources life reconstruction); PPT Slide; Lõuatud rather unusual life reconstruction).

References: Janvier (1996) [J96]; Karatajute-Talimaa & Marss (2002) [KM02]; Marss (1986) [M86]; Turner et al. 1999) [T+99].

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