Palaeos Palaeos Metazoa
Metazoa Dendrogram

 

Metazoa Dendrogram

This claodogram is intended to give only a broad outline.  Even then, it is severely underinclusive.  The plan is to fill it out gradually as we explore, or re-explore, metazoan phylospace to a level approximating the superclass or subphylum of Linnean phylogenies.   

o : crown group
A : stem group
: paraphyletic basal radiation
@ : apomorphy-based clade
* : similarity-based (classical) taxon
? (or blank) : basis uncertain 

A METAZOA (= toads > toadstools)
|--? Choanoflagellata
`-- PORIFERA 
   |--*Archaeocyatha X
   `--+--?(?A)Calcarea 
      `--+--? Hexactinellida 
         `--+--? Demospongiae  
            `--o Eumetazoa (= jellyfish + silverfish)
               |--* CNIDARIA  
               |  |--A Anthozoa 
               |  `--+--? Hydrozoa 
               |     `--+--+--? Scyphozoa 
               |           `--? Cubozoa 
               `--o Bilateria (including ?some/all "Acoelomates") (= starfish + silverfish)
                  |--A DEUTEROSTOMIA (= starfish > silverfish)
                  |  |--* Vetulicolia X
                  |  `--+--@ CHORDATA (notochord present, or A: movie stars > sea stars)
                  |     `--o Ambulacraria (hemichordates + echinoderms)
                  |        |--? Hemichordata 
                  |        `--+--* Vetulocystidae X
                  |           `--o HOMALOZOA (grade, redefined here as Rhenocystis + Echinus)
                  |              |--* Stylophora X  
                  |              |  `-- Cornuta X 
                  |              |     `--* Mitrata X 
                  |              `--+--* Soluta X 
                  |                 `--+--* Cincta X  
                  |                    `--+--* Ctenocystoidea X  
                  |                       `--+--* Helicoplacoidea X  
                  |                          `--o ECHINODERMATA (extant echinoderms)
                  `--+--? (minor phyla)
                     `--o Protostomia (= bugs + slugs)
                        |--A Ecdysozoa (bugs > slugs)
                        |  |--* TARDIGRADA 
                        |  `--? ARTHROPODA  
                        |     |--* TRILOBITA X  
                        |     `--o Euarthropoda (Schizoramia, sort of)
                        |        `--+--* CHELICERATA  
                        |           |  |--Merostoma
                        |           |  |  |--Xiphosura  
                        |           |  |  `--+--Chasmataspida X  
                        |           |  |     `--EURYPTERIDA X  
                        |           |  `--Arachnida
                        |           `--+--* Myriapoda  
                        |              |  |--+--* SYMPHYLA  
                        |              |  |  `--+--* PAUROPODA  
                        |              |  |     `--* DIPLOPODA  
                        |              |  `--* CHILOPODA  
                        |              `--o Pancrustacea lice + lobsters
                        |                 |--o CRUSTACEA (crown group extant crustaceans)
                        |                 |  |--@Remipedia
                        |                 |  `--+--@Cephalocarida
                        |                 |     |--@Malacostraca
                        |                 |     `--+--@Maxillopoda
                        |                 |        `--@Branchiopoda
                        |                 `--o INSECTA (crown group extant insects?) 
                        `--A LOPHOTROCHOZOA (slugs > bugs)
                           |--* Bryozoa
                           |  |--* Phylactolaemata     
                           |  `--+--* Stenolaemata  
                           |     `--* Gymnolaemata  
                           `-- "Halwaxiida" (paraphyletic basal lophotrochozoans)
                              |--o MOLLUSCA  
                              |  |--APLACOPHORA
                              |  |  |--Solenogastres
                              |  |  `--Caudofoveata
                              |  `--+--Polyplacophora 
                              |     `--* CONCHIFERA (=Helcionelloida)
                              |        |--Diasoma
                              |        |  |--ROSTROCONCHIA X
                              |        |  `--BIVALVIA  
                              |        |     |--Protobranchia  
                              |        |     `--Heterodonta
                              |        `--o CYRTOSOMA (slugs + squids)
                              |           |--+--Scaphopoda  
                              |           |  `--CEPHALOPODA  
                              |           |     |--NAUTILOIDEA  
                              |           |     `--NEOCEPHALOPODA  
                              |           |        |--Ammonoidea X 
                              |           |        `--COLEOIDEA  
                              |           `--A GASTROPODA (slugs > squids)
                              |              |--*/ PARAGASTROPODA X
                              |              `--+-- TERGOMYA (paraphyletic)  
                              |                 `--o Gastropoda (slugs + limpets)
                              |                    |--A EOGASTROPODA (limpets > slugs)
                              |                    |  |--Euomphalida X  
                              |                    |  `--A Patellogastropoda  
                              |                    `--A ORTHOGASTROPODA (slugs > limpets) 
                              |                       |--Vetigastropoda  
                              |                       `--Apogastropoda
                              |                          |--Caenogastropoda
                              |                          `--Heterobranchia  
                              |                             |--Opisthobranchia
                              |                             `--PULMONATA  
                              |                                |--Actophila  
                              |                                |--Systellommatophora    
                              |                                `--+--Basommatophora  
                              |                                   `--Stylommatophora 
                              `--+--Annelida
                                 `--* BRACHIOPODA  
                                      |--Linguliformea
                                      `--Craniiformea 
      
For purposes of comparison, we include the following:

Metazoan Phylogeny after Conway Morris (1993) and Peterson & Eernisse (2001)

 
<==o ANIMALIA (METAZOA)
  `-o-+--Porifera (sponges)
    | `-- Archaeocyatha
    `-+--Phagocytellozoa
       `-+?-Mesozoa
         `-+?-Monoblastozoa
           `-o EUMETAZOA
             `--o RADIATA  (radially symmetrical animals)
                |--Cnidaria (Coelentrates)
                `-+--Ctenophora (comb jellies)
                  `-o BILATERALIA (bilaterally symmetrical animals)
                    `-o ACOELOMATA
                      |--Acoela (Platyhelminthes - flatworms in part)
                      `-+--Gnathostomulida
                        `-o COELOMATA 
                          |--o Protostomia 
                          |  `--o LOPHOTROCHOZOA
                          |     |--+--Rhabditophora (Platyhelminthes - flatworms in part)
                          |     |  `--+-- Entoprocta 
                          |     |     |?-- Bryozoa [Ectoprocta] ("moss animals")
                          |     |     |--+-- †Chancelloriida
                          |     |     |  `-- †Sachitida
                          |     |     `--+-- †Siphogonuchitida
                          |     |        `--+--o "MOLLUSCOMORPHA"
                          |     |           |  `--+?- †Tullimonsterida
                          |     |           |     `--+-- Mollusca
                          |     |           |        `--+-- †Hyolitha
                          |     |           |           `-- Sipuncula [Sipunculoidea] 
                          |     |           |--+--o †Halkieriida
                          |     |           |  `-- †Halkeria evangelista
                          |     |           |--o "ANNELIDAMORPHA"
                          |     |           |  |?- †Wiwaxia corrugata
                          |     |           |  `--+?- †Canadia spinosa
                          |     |           |     |--+-- †Amiskwiida
                          |     |           |     |  `-- Nemertea [Nemertinea] 
                          |     |           |     `--+-- Lobatocerebrida
                          |     |           |        `--+--+-- †Banffida
                          |     |           |           |  `-- Echiura [Echiuroidea] 
                          |     |           |           `-- Annelida 
                          |     |           `--+--o LOPHOPHORATA
                          |     |              |  |-- Phoronida 
                          |     |              |  `--+-- †Tommotiida
                          |     |              |     `-- Brachiopoda 
                          |     |              `--+-- †Palaeoscolecida
                          |     |                 `--+-- Kinorhyncha 
                          |     |                    `--+-- Loricifera 
                          |     |                       `-- Priapulida [Priapuloidea]
                          |     `----o Ecdysozoa
                          |           |?-Cycliophora
                          |           |--o Pseudocoelomata =Aschelminthes
                          |           |  |--+--Chaetognatha
                          |           |  |   `--Protoconodonta
                          |           |  `--+--+--Nematoda =Nemata
                          |           |     |  `--Nematomorpha
                          |           |     `--+--Gastrotricha
                          |           |        `--+--Acanthocephala
                          |           |           `--Rotifera (rotifers)
                          |           `--o PANARTHROPODA
                          |               `--+-Lobopoda
                          |                  `--+-Protoarthropoda (anomalocarids)
                          |                     `--Arthropoda
                          `--o Deuterostomia
                             |?- †Vetulicolia Shu, Conway Morris, Han, Chen, Zhang, Zhang, Liu, Li & Liu, 2001
                             |?- †Mitrata [Calcichordata; Stylophora; Carpoidea] (mitrates)
                             |--o "ECHINODERMOMORPHA"
                             |  |--+-- †Cambroclaves
                             |  |  `--+-- †Heterostelea
                             |  |     `-- Echinodermata 
                             |  `--+-- †Dinomischida
                             |     `--+-- †Eldoniida
                             |        `--+-- †Rotadiscida
                             |           `-- †Paropsonemida
                             `--o "CHORDATAMORPHA"
                                |-- †Graptolitha [Stomochordain partim] (graptolites)
                                `--o "CHORDATAFORMES"
                                   |-- Hemichordata [Stomochordain partim]  [paraphyletic?]
                                   `--o CHORDATA
                                      |--Urochordata =Tunicata (sea squirts)
                                      `--+--Cephalochordata =Acraniata (lancelets, Pikaia, etc.)
                                         `--o Craniata (chordates with heads)
                                            |--Myxini (hagfish)
                                            `---->Vertebrata




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