Palaeos: Palaeos Tetrapoda
The Vertebrates References

Tetrapod References

Abbreviated Dendrogram


Ahlberg, PE (1995), Elginerpeton pancheni and the earliest tetrapod clade.  Nature, 373: 420-425.

Ahlberg, PE (1998), Postcranial stem tetrapod remains from the Devonian of Scat Craig, Morayshire, ScotlandZool. J. Linn. Soc. 122: 99-141. 
Acanthostega, Ichthyostega Tetrapoda.  

Ahlberg, PE & JA Clack (1998), Lower jaws, lower tetrapods -- a review based on the Devonian genus Acanthostega. Trans. Roy. Soc. (Edinburgh), Earth Sci., 89: 11-46.
Acanthostega, Baphetes; Baphetidae, Crassigyrinus, Ichthyostega, Loxomma, Megalocephalus, Tetrapoda

Ahlberg, PE & E Luksevics (2004) New light on the Devonian tetrapod Ventastega curonica10th Intl. Symp. Early Vert. Lower Vert., p.10 (abstr).

Ahlberg, PE, JA Clack & E Lukševičs (1996), Rapid braincase evolution between Panderichthyes and the earliest tetrapods. Nature 381: 61-64.

Ahlberg, PE, E Lukševics & E Mark-Kurik (2000), A near-tetrapod from the Baltic Middle Devonian. Palaeontology 43: 533-548.

Andrews, S.M., Browne, M.A.E., Panchen, A.L.&. and Wood, S.P. 1977. Discovery of amphibians in the Namurian (Upper Carboniferous) from Fife. Nature 265: 529-532.

Andrews, SM & TS Westoll (1970), The postcranial skeleton of Eusthenopteron foordi Whiteaves. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. 68: 207–329. 

Beaumont, EH (1977), Cranial morphology of the Loxommatidae (Amphibia: Labyrinthodontia)Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 280: 29-101. 
Baphetes, Baphetidae, Loxomma, Megalocephalus, Spathicephalus.

Beaumont, EH & TR Smithson (1998), The cranial morphology and relationships of the aberrant Carboniferous amphibian Spathicephalus mirus WatsonZool. J. Linn. Soc. 122: 187-209.

Michael J. Benton (2000). "Stems, nodes, crown clades, and rank-free lists: is Linnaeus dead?". Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 75 (4): 633–648. PMID 11117201.
Amphibians, Systematics, and Cladistics

Benton, M. J. (2005), Vertebrate Paleontology, 2nd Ed. 2000, 3rd ed. 2005, Blackwell Science Ltd
Amphibians, Systematics, and Cladistics

Berman, DS (2000), Origin and early evolution of the amniote occiput. J. Paleontol. 74: 938-956.
Acanthostega, Baphetes, Baphetidae.

Berner, RA & Z Kothavala (2001), GEOCARB III: a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic timeAmer. J. Sci. 301: 182-204. 

Berner, RA, DJ Beerling, R Dudley, JM Robinson & RAWildman, Jr (2003), Phanerozoic atmospheric oxygen.  Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 31: 105–34.

Blom, H (2005), Taxonomic revision of the Late Devonian tetrapod Ichthyostega from East GreenlandPalaeontology 48: 111-134.
Ichthyostega, Tetrapoda.  

Carroll, RL (1988), Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, WH Freeman & Co., 698 pp.
Amphibians, Systematics, and Cladistics, Colosteidae

Carroll, RL (2009), The Rise of Amphibians : 365 million years of evolution, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
Amphibians, Systematics, and Cladistics

Carroll, RL, J Irwin & DM Green (2005), Thermal physiology and the origin of terrestriality in vertebratesZool. J. Linn. Soc. 143: 345–358. Acanthostega, Ichthyostega .

Clack, JA (1989), Discovery of the earliest-known tetrapod stapesNature 342: 425-427.

Clack, JA (1994), Earliest known tetrapod braincase and the evolution of the stapes and fenestra ovalisNature 369: 392-394.  
Acanthostega, Tetrapoda.  

Clack, JA (1997), Devonian tetrapod trackways and trackmakers; a review of the fossils and footprintsPalaeogeog., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 130: 227-250.
Tetrapoda, Tetrapoda.  

Clack, JA (1998), A new Early Carboniferous tetrapod with a mélange of crown-group charactersNature 394: 66-69.
Baphetes, Eucritta.

Clack, JA (1998a), The neurocranium of Acanthostega gunnari Jarvik and the evolution of the otic region in tetrapodsZool. J. Linn. Soc. 122: 61-97. 
Acanthostega, Ichthyostega, Tetrapoda.  

Clack, J. A. 1998b. The Scottish Carboniferous tetrapod Crassigyrinus scoticus (Lydekker) - cranial anatomy and relationships. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences. 88, 127-142.

Clack, JA (2001), Eucritta melanolimnetes from the Early Carboniferous of Scotland, a stem tetrapod showing a mosaic of characteristicsTrans. Roy. Soc. Edin.: Earth Sci. 92: 72-95.
Spathicephalus, Eucritta.

Clack, JA (2002), Gaining Ground: the Origin and Evolution of Tetrapods.  Indiana Univ. Press, 369 pp.
Acanthostega, Baphetes, Baphetidae, Ichthyostega, Loxomma, Megalocephalus, Spathicephalus, Tetrapoda, Tetrapoda.  

Clack, JA (2002a), The dermal skull roof of Acanthostega gunnari, an early tetrapod from the Late DevonianTrans. R. Soc. Edin., Earth Sci. 93: 17-33. 
Acanthostega, Ichthyostega, Tetrapoda.

Clack, J. A. 2002b. An early tetrapod from Romer's Gap. Nature 418: 72-76. doi:10.1038/nature00824. PMID 12097908 pdf
Crassigyrinus, Pederpes, Whatcheeriidae

Clack, JA (2003), A revised reconstruction of the dermal skull roof of Acanthostega, an early tetrapod from the Late Devonian. Trans. R. Soc. Edin., Earth Sci. 93: 163-165. 

Clack, Jennifer A. 2006. Crassigyrinus. Crassigyrinus scoticus. Version 09 February 2006. in The Tree of Life Web Project,

Clack, Jennifer A. 2009. The Fish-Tetrapod Transition: New Fossils and Interpretations. Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:213–223 DOI 10.1007/s12052-009-0119-2. pdf

Clack, JA, PE Ahlberg, SM Finney, P Dominguez Alonso, J Robinson & RA Ketcham (2003), A uniquely specialized ear in a very early tetrapodNature 425: 65-69. 
Acanthostega, Ichthyostega, Tetrapoda.

Clack, J. A., and S. M. Finney. 2005. Pederpes finneyae, an articulated tetrapod from the Tournaisian of western Scotland. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 2: 311-346.

Clement, G, PE Ahlberg, A Blieck, H Blom, JA Clack, E Poty, J Thorez, & P Janvier (2004), Devonian tetrapod from western Europe. Nature 427: 412-413.

Coates, MI (1996), The Devonian tetrapod Acanthostega gunnari Jarvik: postcranial anatomy, basal tetrapod interrelationships and patterns of skeletal evolutionTrans. R. Soc. Edin, Earth Sci. 87: 363-421. 
Acanthostega, Ichthyostega, Tetrapoda, Tetrapoda.  

Coates, MI & JA Clack (1991), Fish-like gills and breathing in the earliest known tetrapod. Nature 352: 234-236. 
Acanthostega, Tetrapoda.  

Coates, MI, JE Jeffery & M Ruta (2002), Fins to limbs: what the fossils say. Evol. & Devel. 4: 390-401. 
Acanthostega, Ichthyostega, Tetrapoda, Tetrapoda.  

Coates, MI, NH Shubin & EB Daeschler (2004), Response to comment on "The early evolution of the tetrapod humerus." Science 305: 1715d. 

Colbert, E.H., 1969 Evolution of the Vertebrates, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd ed.
Amphibians, Systematics, and Cladistics

Daeschler, EB (2000), Early tetrapod jaws from the Late Devonian of Pennsylvania, USA. J. Paleont. 74: 301-308. 
Tetrapoda, Tetrapoda.

Daeschler, EB, NH Shubin, KS Thomson & WW Amaral (1994), A Devonian tetrapod from North America.  Science 265: 639-642. 
Tetrapoda, Tetrapoda.

Dubuisson, J-Y, P Rachebouf, & P Janvier (2003), Du Silurien au Devonien: les sorties des eaux in P. Janvier & V. Dupres [eds.] (2003-2005), Evolution: De l'Origine de la Vie aux Origines de l'Homme

Dudley, R (1998), Atmospheric oxygen, giant Paleozoic insects and the evolution of aerial locomotor performanceJ. Exper. Biol. 201, 1043–1050. 

Gauthier, J., Canatella, D., De Queiroz, K., Kluge, A. and Rowe, T. 1989. Tetrapod phylogeny. In: Fernholm, B., Bremer, K. and Jornwall, H., The Hierarchy of Life. London, Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. 337-353.

Godfrey, SJ (1989) The postcranial skeletal anatomy of the Carboniferous tetrapod Greererpeton burkemorani Romer, 1969. Phil. Trans. R. Soc (Lond.), B323: 75-133.

Gordon, M.S. and Long, J.A. (2004) The Greatest Step In Vertebrate History: A Paleobiological Review of the Fish-Tetrapod Transition. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 77(5):700-719. pdf

Janvier, P (1996), Early Vertebrates, Oxford, 393 pp. 

Jarvik, E (1996), The Devonian tetrapod IchthyostegaFossils & Strata 40: 1–213. 
Tetrapoda, Ichthyostega

Johanson, Z, PE Ahlberg & A Ritchie (2003), The braincase and palate of the tetrapodomorph sarcopterygian Mandageria fairfaxi: morphological variability near the fishtetrapod transition. Palaeontology 46: 271–293. 

Kellogg, EA & ND Juliano (1997), The Structure and function of RuBisCo and their implications for systematic studiesAmer. J. Bot. 84: 413–428. 

Thomas S. Kuhn (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press. p. 102. ISBN 226458032.
Amphibians, Systematics, and Cladistics

Thomas S. Kuhn (1998). "Metaphor and theory change". In Andrew Ortony. Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge University Press. p. 539. ISBN 0521227275.
Amphibians, Systematics, and Cladistics

Michel Laurin (2008). "The splendid isolation of biological nomenclature". Zoologica Scripta 37 (2): 223–233. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2007.00318.x.
Amphibians, Systematics, and Cladistics

Laurin, M, M Girondot & A de Ricqlès (2000), Early tetrapod evolution. Tree 15: 118-123. 

Lebedev, OA & JA Clack (1993), Upper Devonian tetrapods from Andreyeva, Tula Region, Russia.  Paleontology 36: 721-734.
Tetrapoda, Tetrapoda.  

Lebedev, OA & MI Coates (1995), The postcranial skeleton of the Devonian tetrapod Tulerpeton curtum Lebedev.   Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 114: 307-348. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.1995.tb00119.x
Acanthostega, Ichthyostega, Tetrapoda, Tetrapoda, Tulerpeton

Leebens-Mack, J & C dePamphilis (2002), Power analysis of tests for loss of selective constraint in cave crayfish and nonphotosynthetic plant lineagesMol. Biol. Evol. 19: 1292-1302. 

Lombard, R.E.; and Bolt, J.R. (1995). A new primitive tetrapod, Whatcheeria deltae, from the Lower Carboniferous of Iowa. Palaeontology 38 (3): 471-495.

Long, JA & MS Gordon (2004) The greatest step in vertebrate history: a paleobiological review of the fish-tetrapod transition. Physiol. Biochem. Zool., 77: 700-719. 
Acanthostega, Ichthyostega.  

Manley, GA & JA Clack (2004), Vertebrate systematics and an outline of the evolution of vertebrate hearing organs, in GA Manley, A Popper & RR Fay [eds.], Evolution of the Vertebrate Auditory System.  Springer-Verlag, pp. 1-26. 

Milner, AC & W Lindsay (1998), Postcranial remains of Baphetes and their bearing on the relationships of the Baphetidae (=Loxommatidae)Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 122: 211-235.
Baphetes, Baphetidae.

Panchen, A.L. 1973. On Crassigyrinus scoticus Watson, a primitive amphibian from the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland. Palaeontology 16: 179-193.

Panchen, A.L. 1985. On the amphibian Crassigyrinus scoticus Watson from the Carboniferous of Scotland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B 309: 461-568.

Panchen, A.L. and Smithson, T.R. 1990. The pelvic girdle and hind limb of Crassigyrinus scoticus (Lydekker) from the Scottish Carboniferous and the origin of the tetrapod pelvic skeleton. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences. 81: 31-44.

Romer, A.S. 1966. Vertebrate Paleontology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. (1st ed 1933, 2nd ed. 1945; 3rd ed. 1966)
Amphibians, Systematics, and Cladistics

Ruta, M. and Bolt, J.R. 2008. The brachyopoid Hadrokkosaurus bradyi from the early Middle Triassic of Arizona, and a phylogenetic analysis of lower jaw characters in temnospondyl amphibians. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 53 (4): 579-592.

Ruta, M, MI Coates & DLJ Quicke (2003), Early tetrapod relationships revisitedBiol. Rev. 78: 251-345.
Acanthostega, Crassigyrinus, Ichthyostega, Tetrapoda,

Ruta, M., Jeffery, J. E. and Coates, M. I. 2003b. A supertree of early tetrapods. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences 270: 2507-2516. . pdf

Shear, WA & PA Selden (2001), Rustling in the undergrowth: animals in early terrestrial ecosystems in PG Gensel & D Edwards [eds.], Plants Invade the Land, Columbia Univ. Press, pp. 29-51.

Shubin, NH, EB Daeschler, & MI Coates (2004), The early evolution of the tetrapod humerusScience 304: 90-93. 
Acanthostega, Tetrapoda, Tetrapoda.  

Warren, A, 2007, New data on Ossinodus pueri, a stem tetrapod from the Early Carboniferous of Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27(4):850-862 preview
Ossinodus, Whatcheeriidae

Warren, A., and Turner, S. (2004). The first stem tetrapod from the Lower Carboniferous of Gondwana. Palaeontology 47(1):151-184.
Ossinodus, Whatcheeriidae - Overview

Zhu, M, PE Ahlberg, W Zhao & L Jia (2002), First Devonian tetrapod from Asia. Nature 420: 760-761.

checked ATW050703, revised MAK111112