The Vertebrates References

Temnospondyl References

Abbreviated Dendrogram
Tetrapoda ├─┬─Lepospondyli │ └─Reptiliomorpha │ └─Temnospondyli └─┬─Edopoidea └─┬─Dendrerpeton ├─Dvinosauria └─┬─Euskelia │ ╞═Dissorophoidea │ │ └─Lissamphibia │ └─Eryopoidea └─Stereospondyli ├─Rhinesuchidae └─┬─Lydekkerinidae ├─┬─Plagiosauroidea │ └─┬─Rhytidosteidae │ └─Brachyopoidea └─┬─Capitosauria └─Trematosauria ├─Trematosauroidea └─Metoposauroidea

Assorted primitive temnospondyls
Dvinosauria - phylogenetic relationships
Primitive Stereospondyli


Anderson, HM & JM Anderson (1970), A preliminary review of the biostratigraphy of the Uppermost Permian, Triassic, and Lowermost Jurassic of Gondwanaland. Paleontol. Afr. 13(suppl.): 1-22.

Anderson, JM & ARI Cruikshank (1978), The Biostratigraphy of the Permian and Triassic, Part 5, a review of the classification and distribution of Permo-Triassic Tetrapods, Paleontol. Afr. 21: 15-44.

Anon, Petrified Forest National Park - Koskinonodon;

Berman, D.S.; and Reisz, R.R. (1980). "A new species of Trimerorhachis (Amphibia, Temnospondyli) from the Lower Permian Abo Formation of New Mexico, with discussion of Permian faunal distributions in that state". Annals of the Carnegie Museum 49: 455–485.

Bolt, JR & S Chatterjee (2000), A new temnospondyl amphibian from the Late Triassic of Texas. J. Paleontol. 74: 670-683.

Carroll, RL (1988), Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, WH Freeman & Co., 698 pp.
Laccocephalus; Metoposauroidea; Overview, Rhinesuchidae, Trematosauroidea

Carroll, RL (2009), The Rise of Amphibians : 365 million years of evolution, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore
Dvinosauria - phylogenetic relationships, Dvinosaurus, Eugryinus, Isodectes, Tupilakosaurus

Carlson, K. J. (1987). "Perryella, a new temnospondylous amphibian from the Lower Permian of Oklahoma". Journal of Paleontology 61 (1): 135–147.

Case, E.C. (1935). "Description of a collection of associated skeletons of Trimerorhachis". University of Michigan Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology 4 (13): 227–274.

Colbert, E.H. (1955). "Scales in the Permian amphibian Trimerorhachis". American Museum Novitates 1740: 1-17. pdf

Damiani, RJ (2001), A systematic revision and phylogenetic analysis of Triassic mastodonsauroids (Temnospondyli: Stereospondyli). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 133: 379-482.
Angusaurus, Thoosuchinae, Thoosuchus, Trematosauridae, Trematosauroidea, Trematosaurus, Yarengia.

Damiani, R., C.A. Sidor, J.-S. Steyer, R.M.H. Smith, F.R. O'Keefe, H.C.E. Larsson, A. Maga, O. Ide. The vertebrate fauna of the Upper Permian of Niger—V, The primitive temnospondyl Saharastega moradiensis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26: 559-572.
Comments on early temnospondyl phylogeny, Saharastega

Englehorn, J.; Small, B.J; and Huttenlocker, A. (2008). "A redescription of Acroplous vorax (Temnospondyli: Dvinosauria) based on new specimens from the Early Permian of Nebraska and Kansas, U.S.A.". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28 (2): 291–305. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2008)28[291:AROAVT]2.0.CO;2.
Dvinosauria - phylogenetic relationships

Falcon-Lang, H. J. 1999. Fire ecology of a Late Carboniferous floodplain, Joggins, Nova Scotia. Journal of the Geological Society, London 156, 137-148., Assorted basal temnospondyls

Fraas, E. 1889. Die Labyrinthodonten der Schwäbischen Trias. Palaeontographica 36, 1–158.

Holmes, R. 2000. Palaeozoic temnospondyls; Pp. 1081-1120 in H. Heatwole and R. L. Carroll (eds.) Amphibian Biology, Volume 4. Surrey Beatty and Sons Ltd., Australia. Dvinosauria - phylogenetic relationships

Holmes, R. B., Carroll, R. L. & Reisz, R. R. 1998. The first articulated skeleton of Dendrerpeton acadianum (Temnospondyli, Dendrerpetontidae) from the lower Pennsylvanian locality of Joggins, Nova Scotia, and a review of its relationships. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18, 64-79.,
Assorted basal temnospondyls

Hunt, A.P. 1989. Comments on the taxonomy of North American metoposaurs and a preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the family Metoposauridae, in Lucas, SG and Hunt, AP, eds., Dawn of the age of dinosaurs in the American Southwest, pp. pp.292-300 Albuquerque, New Mexico Museum of Natural History;

Hunt, A.P. 1993. Revision of the Metoposauridae (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) and description of a new genus from western North America. In: M. Morales (ed.) Aspects of Mesosoic Geology and Paleontology of the Colorado Plateau. Museum of Northern Arizona Biulletin 59, 67-97.

Jupp R, Warren AA (1986) The mandibles of the Triassic temnospondyl amphibians. Alcheringa 10: 99–124.

Lambert, David, Naish, Darren, and Wyse, Elizabeth, 2001 Dorling Kindersley Dibnosaur Encyclopedia DK Publishing, New York.

Langer, M. C., 2005, Studies on continental Late Triassic tetrapod biochronology. II. The Ischigualastian and a Carnian global correlation, Journal of South American Earth Sciences 19 (2005) 219–239,

Laurin, M. & Soler-Gijón, R. 2001. The oldest stegocephalian from the Iberian Peninsula: evidence that temnospondyls were euryhaline. Comptes Rendu de l'Academie des Sciences Paris, Science de la vie 324, 495-501.,
Assorted basal temnospondyls

---- . & Soler-Gijón, R. 2006. The oldest known stegocephalian (Sarcopterygii: Temnospondyli) from Spain. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26, 284-299.,
Assorted basal temnospondyls

Michel Laurin and Jean-Sébastien Steyer, 2000, Phylogeny and Apomorphies of Temnospondyls, Tree of Life Web project,
Comments on early temnospondyl phylogeny

Lucas, Spencer G., 1998, Global Triassic tetrapod biostratigraphy and biochronology. Paleogeog. Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 143: 347-384.

Lucas, Spencer G., 2006, Global Permian tetrapod biostratigraphy and biochronology, in Lucas, S. G., Cassinis, G. & Schneider, J. W. (eds) 2006. Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 265, 65–93.

Mehl, M. G., 1913, A description of Chenoprosopus milleri: In: Permo-Carboniferous Vertebrates from New Mexico, Edited by E. C. Case, S. Williston and M. G. Mehl, Publications, Carnegie Institution of Washington, n. 181, p. 11-16.

Milner, AR (1980), The Tetrapod assemblage from Nyrany, Czechoslovakia, in AL Panchen (ed.), The Terrestrial Environment and the Origin of Land Vertebrates. Academic Press: pp.439-496.
Cochleosauridae; Edopoidea.

Milner, A. R. 1990. The radiations of temnospondyl amphibians. 321–349. In Taylor, P. D. and Larwood, G. P. (eds). Major evolutionary radiations. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 437 pp.
Dvinosauria - phylogenetic relationships

Milner, A. R. 1993. Biogeography of Palaeozoic tetrapods; pp. 324–353 in J. A. Long (ed.), Palaeozoic Vertebrate Biostratigraphy and Biogeography. Belhaven Press, London.,
Edopoid Geographical distribution

Milner, A.R. 1994, Late Triassic and Jurassic amphibians: fossil record and phylogeny, pp.5-22 in Fraser & Sues (eds.) In the Shadow of the Dinosaurs: Early Mesozoic Tetrapods, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Plagiosauridae, Latiscopidae, Metoposauridae.

Milner, A. R. 1996. A revision of the temnospondyl amphibians from the Upper Carboniferous of Joggins, Nova Scotia. Special Papers in Palaeontology 52, 81-103.,
Assorted basal temnospondyls

Milner, A. R. & Sequeira, S. E. K. 1994. The temnospondyl amphibians from the Visean of East Kirkton, West Lothian, Scotland. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences 84, 331-361.,
Assorted basal temnospondyls, Balanerpeton

Milner, A. C. & Sequeira, S. E. K. 1998. A cochleosaurid temnospondyl amphibian from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Linton, Ohio, U.S.A. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 122, 261-290.
Edopoidea, Assorted basal temnospondyls

Milner, A. R.; and Sequeira, S. E. K. (2004). "Slaugenhopia texensis (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) from the Permian of Texas is a primitive tupilakosaurid". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24 (2): 320-325. doi:10.1671/1974.
Kourerpeton, Slaugenhopia, Tupilakosauridae

Mueller, B.D. (2007). "Koskinonodon Branson and Mehl, 1929, a replacement name for the preoccupied temnospondyl Buettneria Case, 1922". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (1): 225. ;

Müller, AH (1968), Lehrbuch der Paläozoologie, vol.II part 1 (Vertebrates).

Murry, P.A. 1986. Vertebrate paleontology of the Dockum group, western Texas and eastern New Mexico. In The Beginning of the Age of Dinosaurs. Faunal Change across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary (K. Padian, Ed.), pp. 109-137. Cambridge Univ. press, Cambridge, UK.

Nilsson, T. (1946), A new find of Gerrothorax rhaeticus Nilsson a plagiosaurid from the Rhaetic of Scania. Lunds Univ. Årsskr. N.F.(2) 42(10).

Olson, E.C. (1979). "Aspects of the biology of Trimerorhachis (Amphibia: Temnospondyli)". Journal of Paleontology 53 (1): 1–17. JSTOR 1304028.

Pawley, Kat, 2006, The Postcranial Skeleton of Temnospondyls (Tetrapoda: Temnospondyli), Phd thesis, La Trobe University, online
Dvinosauria - phylogenetic relationships

Pawley, K. (2007). "The postcranial skeleton of Trimerorhachis insignis Cope, 1878 (Temnospondyli: Trimerorhachidae): a plesiomorphic temnospondyl from the Lower Permian of North America". Journal of Paleontology 81 (5): Journal of Paleontology. doi:10.1666/pleo05-131.1.

Graciela Piñeiro, Claudia Marsicano, and Nora Lorenzo (2007). "A new temnospondyl from the Permo-Triassic Buena Vista Formation of Uruguay". Palaeontology 50 (3): 627–640. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2007.00645.x.


Pough, FH, CM Janis & JB Heiser (1999), Vertebrate Life (5th ed.), Prentice Hall, 733+ pp.

Rieppel, O., 1980, The edopoid amphibian Cochleosaurus from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Nova Scotia: Palaeontology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 143-149., Cochleosaurus florensis

Robinson, J., Ahlberg, P. E. & Koentges, G. 2005. The braincase and middle ear region of Dendrerpeton acadianum (Tetrapoda: Temnospondyli). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 143, 577-597.,
Assorted basal temnospondyls

Romer, A. S. 1947, Review of the Labyrinthodontia, Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, v.99, pp.1-368

Ruta, M. & Bolt, J. R. 2006. A reassessment of the temnospondyl amphibian Perryella olsoni from the Lower Permian of Oklahoma. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 97 (2): 113-165. doi:10.1017/S0263593300001437.
Dvinosauria - phylogenetic relationships, Perryella

Ruta M, Bolt JR (2008)The brachyopoid Hadrokkosaurus bradyi from the early Middle Triassic of Arizona, and a phylogenetic analysis of lower jaw characters in temnospondyl amphibians. Acta Paleontologia Polonica 53: 579-592

Ruta, M., Coates, M. I. & Quicke, D. L. J. 2003a. Early tetrapod relationships revisited. Biological Reviews 78, 251-345.,
Assorted basal temnospondyls, Comments on early temnospondyl phylogeny

Ruta, M., Jeffery, J. & Coates, M. I. 2003b. A supertree of early tetrapods. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270, 2507-2516.,
Assorted basal temnospondyls, Dvinosauria - phylogenetic relationships

Marcello Ruta, Davide Pisani, Graeme T Lloyd and Michael J Benton, 2007, A supertree of Temnospondyli: cladogenetic patterns in the most species-rich group of early tetrapods, Proc. R. Soc. B 2007 274, 3087-3095 doi: 10.1098/rspb.2007.1250
Dvinosauria - phylogenetic relationships, Laidleria

Romer, AS (1947) Vertebrate Paleontology, (3rd ed.1966) Univ. Chicago Press.

Marcello Ruta, Davide Pisani, Graeme T. Lloyd and Michael J. Benton, A supertree of Temnospondyli: cladogenetic patterns in the most species-rich group of early tetrapods, Proc. R. Soc. B (2007) 274, 3087–3095
Comments on early temnospondyl phylogeny, Dvinosauria - phylogenetic relationships

Schoch, R. R. 2001. Can metamorphosis be recognised in Palaeozoic amphibians? Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen 220, 335-367.

Schoch, Rainer R. 2008, The Capitosauria (Amphibia): characters, phylogeny, and stratigraphy, , Palaeodiversity 1: 189–226

Schoch, R.R., Fastnacht, M., Fichter, J., and Keller, T. 2007. Anatomy and relationships of the Triassic temnospondyl Sclerothorax. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52 (1): 117–136.

Scotese, C. R. 2001. Atlas of Earth History, Volume 1, Paleogeography. Paleomap Project, Arlington, Texas, 52 pp.
Edopoid Geographical distribution

Scott, A. C. 2001. Roasted alive in the Carboniferous. Geoscientist 11 (3), 4-7.,
Assorted basal temnospondyls

Sequeira, S. E. K. 1996. A cochleosaurid amphibian from the Upper Carboniferous of Ireland. Special Papers in Palaeontology 52, 65-80.

Sequeira, S. E. K. 1998. The cranial morphology and taxonomy of the saurerpetontid Isodectes obtusus comb. nov. (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) from the Lower Permian of Texas. In D. B. Norman, A. C. Milner and A. R. Milner (eds.): A study of fossil vertebrates. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 122(1-2):237-259

Sequeira, S. E. K. 2004. The skull of Cochleosaurus bohemicus Fric, a temnospondyl from the Czech Republic (Upper Carboniferous) and cochleosaurid interrelationships. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 94, 21-43.

Sequeira, S. E. K. & Milner, A. R. 1993. The temnospondyl amphibian Capetus from the Upper Carboniferous of the Czech Republic. Palaeontology 36, 657-680.,
Assorted basal temnospondyls, Capetus

Shishkin, MA, IV Novikov & YM Gubin (2000), Permian and Triassic temnospondyls from Russia in MJ Benton, MA Shishkin, DM Unwin & EN Kurochkin (eds.), The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia, Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 35-59.
Angusaurus, Dvinosaurus, Inflectosaurus, Luzocephalidae, Prothoosuchus, Thoosuchus, Trematosauridae, Trematosauroidea, Tupilakosaurus Yarengia.

Shishkin, MA & Rubridge, BS (2000), A relict rhinesuchid (Amphibia: Temnospondyli) from the Lower Triassic of South Africa. Palaeontology 43: 653-670.

Sidor, C. A., O'Keefe, F. R., Damiani, R., Steyer, J. S., Smith, R. M. H., Larsson, H. C. E., Sereno, P. C., Ide, O. & Maga, A. 2005. Permian tetrapods from the Sahara show climate-controlled endemism in Pangaea. Nature 434, 886-889.
Edopoidea, Assorted basal temnospondyls, Saharastega

Steyer, JS (2000), Ontogeny and phylogeny in temnospondyls: a new method of analysis. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 130: 449-467.

Steyer, JS (2002), The first articulated trematosaur "amphibian" from the Lower Triassic of Madagascar: implications for the phylogeny of the group. Palaeontology 45: 771-793. WWW.
Angusaurus, Inflectosaurus, Luzocephalidae, Trematosauridae, Trematosaurus.

J. Sébastien Steyer and Ross Damiani, 2005, A giant brachyopoid temnospondyl from the Upper Triassic or Lower Jurassic of Lesotho. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 176 (3): 243-248.
giant brachyopoid

Steyer, J. S., Damiani, R., Sidor, C. A., O'Keefe, R., Larsson, H. C. E., Maga, A. & Ide, O. 2006. The vertebrate fauna of the Upper Permian of Niger. IV. Nigerpeton ricqlesi (Temnospondyli: Cochleosauridae), and the edopoid colonization of Gondwana. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26, 18-28.
Edopoidea, Comments on early temnospondyl phylogeny, Edopoid Geographical distribution, Nigerpeton, Assorted basal temnospondyls, Saharastega

Sulej, T., 2002: Species discrimination of the Late Triassic temnospondyl amphibian Metoposaurus diagnosticus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica: Vol. 47, #3, pp. 535-546

Sulej, T. 2007. Osteology, variability, and evolution of Metoposaurus, a temnospondyl from the Late Triassic of Poland. Palaeontologia Polonica 64, 29–139.

von Zittel, KA (1932), Textbook of Paleontology, CR Eastman (transl. and ed), 2nd edition, vol.2, Macmillan & Co.
Rhinesuchus; Uranocentradon.

Warren, AA (1985), Triassic Australian plagiosauroid. J. Paleontol. 59: 236-241.

Warren, AA (1995), Plagiosternum granulosum E. Fraas: a plagiosaurid temnospondyl from the Middle Triassic of Crailsheim, Germany. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Ser. B #229. 8 pp.

Warren, AA (1998), Laidleria uncovered: a redescription of Laidleria gracilis Kitching 1957), a temnospondyl from the Cynognathus Zone of South Africa. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 122: 167-185.
Laidleria; Plagiosauridae; Plagiosauroidea.

Warren, A.A. (1999). "Karoo tupilakosaurid: a relict from Gondwana". Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh Earth Sciences 89: 145–160.

Warren, AA & L Davey (1992), Folded teeth in temnospondyls -- a preliminary study. Alcheringa 16: 107-132.

Warren, AA & C Marsicano (2000), A phylogeny of the Brachyopoidea (Temnospondyli, Stereospondyli). J. Vert. Paleontol. 20: 462-483.
Dendrogram, Plagiosauridae, Hadrokkosaurus, giant brachyopoid

Werneburg, R.; Steyer, J. S.; Sommer, G.; Gand, G.; Schneider, J. W.; and Vianey-Liaud, M. (2007). "The earliest tupilakosaurid amphibian with diplospondylous vertebrae from the Late Permian of southern France". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (1): 26–30. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2007)27[26:TETAWD]2.0.CO;2.

Williston, S.W. (1915). "Trimerorhachis, a Permian temnospondyl amphibian". The Journal of Geology 23 (3): 246–255.

Williston, S.W. (1916). "The skeleton of Trimerorhachis". The Journal of Geology 24 (3): 291–297.

Yates, AM (1999), The Lapillopsidae: a new family of small temnospondyls from the Early Triassic of Australia. J. Vert. Paleontol. 19: 302-320.
Dendrogram; Stereospondyli.

Yates, AM (2000), A new tiny rhytidosteid (Temnospondyli: Stereospondyi) from the Early Triassic of Australia and the possibility of hidden temnospondyl diversity. J. Vert Paleontol. 20:484-489.

Yates, AM & AA Warren (2000), The phylogeny of the 'higher' temnospondyls (Vertebrata: Choanata) and its implications for the monophyly and origins of the Stereospondyli. Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 128: 77-121.
Dendrogram; Laidleria; Limnarchia; Luzocephalidae; Metoposauroidea, Overview, Plagiosauridae; Plagiosauroidea;  Temnospondyli; Thoosuchinae; Thoosuchus, Trematosauria, Trematosauridae, Trematosauroidea., Hadrokkosaurus

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