Eukarya References

Eukarya References

Abbreviated Dendrogram
Life ├─Eubacteria └─┬─Archaea └─Eukarya ├─Metamonada └─┬─Discicristata └─┬─Rhizaria └─┬─┬─┬─Alveolata │ │ └─Chromista │ └─Plantae └─Stem Metazoa ├─Fungi └─Metazoa


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P Q R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


Amoils, S (2006), Bacterial physiology: The Mtb proteasome: an open and shut case. Nature Rev. Biochem. 4:325 (research summary). Eukarya.

Anderson, DM, JJ Lively, EM Reardon, & CA Price (1985), Sinking characteristics of dinoflagellate cysts. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30: 1000. Dinoflagellata.

Angert, ER (2005), Alternatives to binary fission in bacteria. Nature Rev. Microbiol. 3: 214-224. Eukarya.

Armstrong, PB, MT Armstrong, RL Pardy, A Child & N Wainwright (2002), Immunohistochemical demonstration of a lipopolysaccharide in the cell wall of a eukaryote, the green alga, Chlorella. Biol. Bul. 203: 203-204. Eukarya.

Aspinall-O’Dea, M, M Wentworth, A Pascal, B Robert, A Ruban & P Horton (2002) In vitro reconstitution of the activated zeaxanthin state associated with energy dissipation in plants. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 99: 16331-16335.

Azim, MK, W Goehring, HK Song, R Ramachandran, M Bochtler, & P Goettig (2005), Characterization of the HslU chaperone affinity for HslV protease. Protein Sci. 14: 1357–1362. Eukarya.


Bacchi, CJ, LM Weiss, S Lane, B Frydman, A Valasinas, V Reddy, JS Sun, LJ Marton, IA Khan, M Moretto, N Yarlett, & M Wittner 2002), Novel synthetic polyamines are effective in the treatment of experimental microsporidiosis, an opportunistic AIDS-associated infection. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 55-61. Microsporidia.

Baldauf, SL. AJ Roger, I Wenk-Siefert & WF Doolittle (2000), A kingdom-level phylogeny of eukaryotes based on combined protein data. Science 290: 972-977.

Bacchi, CJ, LM Weiss, S Lane, B Frydman, A Valasinas, V Reddy, JS Sun, LJ Marton, IA Khan, M Moretto, N Yarlett, & M Wittner 2002), Novel synthetic polyamines are effective in the treatment of experimental microsporidiosis, an opportunistic AIDS-associated infection. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 55-61. Microsporidia.

Baluška, F, D Volkmann & PW Barlow (2004), Eukaryotic cells and their cell bodies: Cell theory revised. Ann. Bot. 94: 9-32. Eukarya.

Baroli, I, AD Do, T Yamane & KK Niyogi (2003), Absence of a functional xanthophyll cycle protects Chlamydomonas reinhardtii from photooxidative stress. Plant Cell 15: 992–1008.

Bartlett, GJ, N Borkakoti & JM Thornton (2003), Catalyzing new reactions during evolution: Economy of residues and mechanism. J. Mol. Biol. 331: 829-860. Eukarya.

Bendich, AJ & K Drlica (2000), Prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes: what's the difference? Bioessays 22: 481-486. Eukarya.

Bhattacharya, D, T Helmchen, C Bibeau & M Melkonian 1995), Comparisons of nuclear-encoded small-subunit ribosomal RNAs reveal the evolutionary position of the Glaucocystophyta. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12: 415-420. Glaucophyta.

Bishop, RE C Cambillau, GG Privé, D Hsi, D Tillo & ERM Tillier (2005), Bacterial lipocalins: Origin, structure, and function, in Eurekah Biosciences Collection: Cell Metabolism. Eukarya.

Bochtler, M, L Ditzel, M Groll & R Huber (1997), Crystal structure of heat shock locus V (HslV) from Escherichia coli. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 97: 6070-6074. Eukarya.

Bonanno, JB, C Edo, N Eswar, U Pieper, MJ Romanowski, V Ilyin, SE Gerchman, H Kycia, FW Studier, A Sali & SK Burley 2001), Structural genomics of enzymes involved in sterol/isoprenoid biosynthesis. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 98: 12896-12901. Eukarya.

Bonifacino, JS & BS Glick (2004), The mechanisms of vesicle budding and fusion. Cell 116: 153-166. Eukarya.

Bouck, GB, A Rogalski & A Valaitis (1978), Surface organization and composition of Euglena. II. Flagellar mastigonemes. J. Cell Biol. 77: 805-826.

Bresler, V & L Fishelson (2004), Polyploidy and polyteny in the gigantic eubacterium Epulopiscium fishelsoni. Marine Biol. 143: 17-21. (reviewed abstract only)  Eukarya.

Brochier, C (2002), Phylogénie des Eubactéries et mise en évidence des transferts horizontaux. Unpubl. doctoral dissertation. Univ. Paris-Sud. Eukarya.

Brochier, C, P López-García & D Moreira (2004), Horizontal gene transfer and archaeal origin of deoxyhypusine synthase homologous genes in bacteria. Gene 330: 169-176. Eukarya.

Brocks, JJ, R Buick, RE Summons & GA Logan 2003), A reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67: 4321-4335. Eukarya.

Brugerolle, G (1991), Flagellar and cytoskeletal systems in amitochondriate flagellates: Archamoeba, Metamonada and Parabasala. Protoplasma 164: 70–90. Oxymonadida, Polymastigidae, Pyrsonymphidae.

Brugerolle, G & H König (1997), Ultrastructure and organization of the cytoskeleton in Oxymonas, an intestinal flagellate of termites. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 44: 305-313. OxymonadidaePyrsonymphidae, Streblomastigidae.

Buettner, R, G Papoutsoglou, E Scemes, DC Spray & R Dermietzel (2000), Evidence for secretory pathway localization of a voltage-dependent anion channel isoform. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 97: 3201-3206. Eukarya.

Burgoyne, RD & A Morgan (2003), Secretory granule exocytosis. Physiol. Rev. 83: 581–632.

Butler, MK J Wang, RI Webb & JA Fuerst 2002), Molecular and ultrastructural confirmation of classification of ATCC 35122 as a strain of Pirellula staleyi. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 1663-1667. Eukarya.


Cabello, P, MD Roldán & C Moreno-Vivián (2004), Nitrate reduction and the nitrogen cycle in Archaea. Microbiology 150: 3527-3546. Eukarya.

Cachon, J, M Cachon & KW Estep (1990), Phylum Actinopoda – Classes Polycystina (=Radiolaria) and Phaeodaria. in L Margulis, JO Corliss, M Melkonian & DJ Chapman [eds], Handbook of Protoctista: The Structure, Cultivation, Habitats and Life Histories of the Eukaryotic Microorganisms and their Descendants Exclusive of Animals, Plants and Fungi: A Guide to the Algae, Ciliates, Foraminifera, Sporozoa, Water Molds and the Other Protoctists. Jones & Bartlett Publ., pp. 334-346. Rhizaria.

Canning, EU, A Curry, & RM Overstreet (2002), Ultrastructure of Tuzetia weidneri sp. n. (Microsporidia: Tuzetiidae) in Skeletal Muscle of Litopenaeus setiferus and Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Crustacea: Decapoda) and New Data on Perezia nelsoni (Microsporidia: Pereziidae) in L. setiferus. Acta Protozool. 41:63-77. Microsporidia.

Cannon, GC, CE Bradburne, HC Aldrich, SH Baker, S Heinhorst, & JM Shively (2001), Microcompartments in prokaryotes: Carboxysomes and related polyhedra. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 67:  5351–5361.

Carruthers, VB & LD Sibley (1999), Mobilization of intracellular calcium stimulates microneme discharge in Toxoplasma gondii. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 421–428.

Cavalier-Smith, T (1987), Eukaryotes with no mitochondria, Nature 326: 332–333.

Cavalier-Smith, T (1998), A revised six-kingdom system of life, Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 73: 203–266. Oxymonadida, Rhizaria.

Cavalier-Smith, T (1999), Principles of protein and lipid targeting in secondary symbiogenesis: euglenoid, dinoflagellate, and sporozoan plastid origins and the eukaryote family tree. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 46: 347–366. Oxymonadida.

Cavalier-Smith, T (2002), The phagotrophic origin of eukaryotes and phylogenetic classification of Protozoa. Intern. J. Systematic Evol. Microbiol. 52: 297-354. Eukarya, Rhizaria

Cavalier-Smith, T (2002a), The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification. Int. J. Sys. Evol. Microbiol. 52: 7-76. Eukarya.

Cavalier-Smith, T (2003), Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa. Eur. J. Protistol. 39: 338-348. Rhizaria.

Cavalier-Smith, T (2004), Only six kingdoms of life. Proc. R. Soc. Lond B 271: 1251-1262. Eukarya.

Cavalier-Smith, T (2006), Rooting the tree of life by transition analyses. Biol. Direct 2006: 1: 19. Eukarya.

Cavalier-Smith, T & EE-Y Chao (1995), The opalozoan Apusomonas is related to the common ancestor of animals, fungi and choanoflagellates. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., B 261: 1-6. Apusomonadida.

Cavalier-Smith, T & EE-Y Chao (2003), Phylogeny of choanozoa, apusozoa, and other protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. J. Mol. Evol. 56: 540-63. Apusomonadida, Rhizaria.

Chillarón, J, R Roca, A Valencia, A Zorzano & M Palacín (2001), Heteromeric amino acid transporters: biochemistry, genetics, and physiology. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 281: F995-F1018. Eukarya.

Chistoserdova, L, C Jenkins, MG Kalyuzhnaya, CJ Marx, A Lapidus, JA Vorholt, JT Staley, & ME Lidstrom (2004), The enigmatic planctomycetes may hold a key to the origins of methanogenesis and methylotrophy. Mol. Biol. Evol. 21: 1234-1241. Eukarya.

Cho, J-C, KL Vergin, RM Morris & SJ Giovannoni 2004), Lentisphaera araneosa gen. nov., sp. nov, a transparent exopolymer producing marine bacterium, and the description of a novel bacterial phylum, Lentisphaerae. Env. Microbiol. 6: 611-621. Eukarya.

Cleveland, LR (1956), Brief account of the sexual cycles of the flagellates of Cryptocercus. J. Protozool. 3: 161–180. Oxymonadidae, Saccinobaculidae.

Clowes, CD (1985), Stoveracysta, a new gonyaulacacean dinoflagellate genus from the upper Eocene and lower Oligocene of New Zealand. Palynology 9: 27-36. Dinoflagellata

Couvreur B, R Wattiez, A Bollen, P Falmagne, D Le Ray & J-C Dujardin (2002), Eubacterial HslV and HslU subunits homologs in primordial eukaryotes. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19: 2110–2117. Eukarya.

Čuboňová, L, K Sandman, SJ Hallam, EF DeLong, & JN Reeve (2005), Histones in Crenarchaea. J. Bacteriol. 187: 5482–5485. Eukarya.


Dacks, JB & AJ Roger (1999), The first sexual lineage and the relevance of facultative sex. J. Mol. Evol. 48: 779-783. Oxymonadida.

Dacks, JB, JD Silberman, AGB Simpson, S Moriya, T Kudo, M Ohkuma, & R Redfield (2001), Oxymonads are closely related to the excavate taxon Trimastix. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18: 1034–1044. Oxymonadida, Pyrsonymphidae.

Daiyasu, H, T Hiroike, Y Koga & H Toh (2002), Analysis of membrane stereochemistry with homology modeling of sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. Protein Eng. 15: 987-995. Eukarya.

Dale, B (1996), Dinoflagellate cyst ecology: modelling and geological applications, in J Jansonius & DC McGregor [eds.], Palynology: Principles and Applications. Am. Assoc. Stratigr. Palynol. Found., 3: 1249–1275. Dinoflagellata.

Daubin, V, M Gouy & G Perrière 2001), Bacterial molecular phylogeny using supertree approach. Genome Inf. 12: 155-164. Eukarya.

Delbac, F, I Peuvel, G Metenier, E Peyretaillade, & CP Vivares (2001), Microsporidian invasion apparatus: Identification of a novel polar tube protein and evidence for clustering of ptp1 and ptp2 genes in three Encephalitozoon species. Infect. Immun. 69: 1016–1024. Microsporidia.

Devos D, S Dokudovskaya, F Alber, R Williams, BT Chait, A Sali & MP Rout (2004), Components of coated vesicles and nuclear pore complexes share a common molecular architecture. PLoS Biol. 2: e380. Eukarya.

Didier, ES (1998), Microsporidosis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 1-8. Microsporidia.

Dienes, L & S Bullivant (1968), Morphology and reproductive processes of the L forms of bacteria II. Comparative study of L forms and Mycoplasma with the electron microscope. J. Bacteriol. 95: 672-687. Eukarya.

Du, Y, S Ferro-Novick & P Novick (2004), Dynamics and inheritance of the endoplasmic reticulum, J. Cell Sci. 117: 2871-2878. Eukarya.


Edgcomb, VP, AJ Roger, AGB Simpson, DT Kysela, & ML Sogin (2001), Evolutionary relationships among "jakobid" flagellates as indicated by alpha- and beta-tubulin phylogenies. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18: 514–522. Microsporidia.

Erxleben, C & H Plattner (1994), Ca2+ release from subplasmalemmal stores as a primary event during exocytosis in Paramecium cells. J. Cell Biol. 127: 935-945.

Evitt, WR (1985), Sporopollenin Dinoflagellate Cysts -- Their Morphology and Interpretation. Amer. Assoc. Strat. Palynologists Found. 333 pp. Dinoflagellata.


Fast, NM & PJ Keeling (2001), Alpha and beta subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 from the microsporidian Nosema locustae: Mitochondrion-derived carbon metabolism in Microsporidia. Mol. & Biochem. Parasitol. 117: 201-209. Microsporidia.

Fast, NM, JM Logsdon, Jr., & WF Doolittle (1999), Phylogenetic analysis of the TATA box binding protein (TBP) gene from Nosema locustae: Evidence for a Microsporidia–Fungi relationship and spliceosomal intron loss. Mol. Biol. Evol. 16: 1415-1419. Microsporidia.

Febvre-Chevalier, C (1990) Phylum Actinopoda – Class Heliozoa, in L Margulis, JO Corliss, M Melkonian & DJ Chapman [eds], Handbook of Protoctista: The Structure, Cultivation, Habitats and Life Histories of the Eukaryotic Microorganisms and their Descendants Exclusive of Animals, Plants and Fungi: A Guide to the Algae, Ciliates, Foraminifera, Sporozoa, Water Molds and the Other Protoctists. Jones & Bartlett Publ., pp. 347-362. Rhizaria.

Fensome, RA, JB Riding & FJR Taylor (1996), Dinoflagellates in J Jansonius & DC McGregor [eds.], Palynology: Principles and Applications. Am. Assoc. Stratigr. Palynol. Found., 1: 107-169. Dinozoa.

Fieseler, L, M Horn, M Wagner & U Hentschel 2004), Discovery of the novel candidate phylum "Poribacteria" in marine sponges. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 3724–3732   Eukarya.

Finlay, BJ, GF Esteban & T Fenchel (2004), Protist diversity is different? Protist 155: 15-22. Rhizaria.

Forterre, P (2006), Three RNA cells for ribosomal lineages and three DNA viruses to replicate their genomes: A hypothesis for the origin of cellular domain. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103: 3669-3674. Eukarya.

Froissard, M, R Kissmehl, J-C Dedieu, T Gulik-Krzywicki, H Plattner, & J Cohen (2002), N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor is required to organize functional exocytotic microdomains in Paramecium. Genetics 161: 643-650.

Fuerst, JA (1995), The Planctomycetes: emerging models for microbial ecology, evolution and cell biology. Microbiology 141: 1493-1506. Eukarya.

Fuerst, JA (2004), Planctomycetes – a phylum of emerging interest for microbial evolution and ecology. WFCC Newsltr. 38: 1-11. Eukarya.

Fuerst, JA (2005), Intracellular compartmentation  in Planctomycetes. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 59: 299-328. Eukarya.


Gade, D, D Theiss, H Lehrach, R Amann, J Gobom & R Rabus (2003), Reconstuction of carbohydrate catabolism in Rhodopirellula baltica by proteomics. Proteomic Forum '03 unpubl. abstr.) P-198. Eukarya.

Garrow, AG, A Agnew & DR Westhead (2005), TMB-Hunt: An amino acid composition based method to screen proteomes for beta-barrel transmembrane proteins. BMC Informatics 6: 56. Eukarya.

Gille, C, A Goede, C Schlöetelburg, R Preiβner, PM Kloetzel, UB Göbel & C Frömmel (2003), A comprehensive view on proteasomal sequences: implications for the evolution of the proteasome. J. Mol. Biol. 326: 1437-1448. Eukarya.

Gitai, Z, N Dye & L Shapiro (2004), An actin-like gene can determine cell polarity in bacteria. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 101: 8643–8648. Eukarya.

Glickman, MH & A Ciechanover (2002), The ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway: Destruction for the sake of construction. Phyiol. Rev. 82: 373-428. Eukarya.

Glöckner, FO, M Kube, M Bauer, H Teeling, T Lombardot, W Ludwig, D Gade, A Beck, K Borzym, K Heitmann, R Rabus, H Schlesner, R Amann & R Reinhardt (2003), Complete genome sequence of the marine planctomycete Pirellula sp. strain 1. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 100: 8298-8303. Eukarya.

Goll, RM & EG Merinfeld (1979), Radiolaria, in RW Fairbridge & D Jablonski [eds.], The Encyclopedia of Paleontology. Dowden, Hutchinson, & Ross, pp. 673-684. Acantharea.

Gooday, AJ (1991), Xenophyophores (Protista, Rhizopoda) in box-core samples from the abyssal northeast Atlantic Ocean BIOTRANS area): Their taxonomy, morphology, and ecology. J. Foram. Res. 21: 197-212. Xenophyophorea.

Gooday, AJ (1996), Xenophyophores (Protista), including two new species, from two abyssal sites in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. J. Foram. Res. 26: 193-208. Xenophyophorea.

Gooday, AJ & OS Tendal (1988), New xenophyophores (Protista) from the bathyal and abyssal north-east Atlantic Ocean. J. Nat. Hist. 22: 413-434. Xenophyophorea.

Griffiths, E, MS Ventresca & RS Gupta (2006), BLAST screening of chlamydial genomes to identify signature proteins that are unique for the Chlamydiales, Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydophila and Chlamydia groups of species. BMC Genomics 7:14. Eukarya.

Grossman, AR, MR Schaeffer, GG Chiang & JL Collier (1993), The phycobilisome, a light-harvesting complex responsive to environmental conditions. Microbiol. Rev. 57: 725-749.

Guillou, L, M-J Chrétiennot-Dinet, LK Medlin, H Claustre, S Loiseaux-deGoër & D Vaulot (1999), Bolidomonas: a new genus with two species belonging to a new algal class, the Bolidophyceae Heterokonta), J. Phycol. 35: 368–381.

Gupta, RS & GB Golding (1996) The origin of the eukaryotic cell. Trends Biochem. Sci. 21: 166–171. Eukarya.


Haeckel, E (1887), Report on Radiolaria collected by H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873–1876, in CW Thompson & J Murray [eds.], The Voyage of the H. M. S. Challenger. 18(1), 1760+ pp. Acantharea.

Han, JS & K Ishikawa (2005), Active site of Zn2+-dependent sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from Aeropyrum pernix K1. Archaea 1: 311-317. Eukarya.

Hand, NJ, R Klein, A Laskewitz, & M Pohlschröder 2005), Archaeal and bacterial SecD and SecF homologs exhibit striking structural and functional conservation. J. Bacteriol. 188: 1251-1259. Eukarya.

Hanson, RS & TE Hanson (1996), Methanotrophic bacteria. Microbiol. Rev. 60: 439-471. Eukarya.

Hashimoto, T., LB Sánchez, T Shirakura, M Müller, & M Hasegawa (1998), Secondary absence of mitochondria in Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis revealed by valyl-tRNA synthetase phylogeny. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 95: 6860-6865. Microsporidia.

Hausmann, S, CP Vivarès & S Shuman (2002), Characterization of the mRNA capping apparatus of the microsporidian parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 96-103. Microsporidia.

Hayman, JR, SF Hayes, J Amon & TE Nash (2001), Developmental expression of two spore wall proteins during maturation of the microsporidian Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Infect. Immun. 69: 7057–7066. Microsporidia.

Hickey, AJ, E Conway de Macario & AJ Macario (2002), Transcription in the Archaea: basal factors, regulation, and stress-gene expression. Crit. Rev. Bioch. Mol. Biol. 37: 537-599. Eukarya.

Hirose, K, J Löwe, M Alonso, RA Cross & LA Amos (1999), 3D electron microscopy of the interaction of kinesin with tubulin. Cell Struct. Func. 24: 277-284. Eukarya.

Hirt, RP, JM Logsdon Jr., B Healy, MW Dorey, WF Doolittle, & TM Embley (1999), Microsporidia are related to Fungi: evidence from the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and other proteins. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 96: 580-585. Microsporidia.

Hollande, A., J Carruette-Valentin (1970), Appariement chromosomique et complexes synaptonematiques dans les noyaux en cours de dépolyploidisation chez Pyrsonympha flagellata: le cycle évolutif des Pyrsonymphines symbiontes de Reticulitermes lucifugus. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 270: 2550–2555. Pyrsonymphidae.

Hopwood, JD, S Mann & AJ Gooday (1997), The crystallography and possible origin of barium sulphate in deep sea rhizopod protists (Xenophyophorea). J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 77: 969-987. Xenophyophorea.

Hotton, CL, FM Hueber, DH Griffing, & JS Bridge (2001), Early Terrestrial Plant Environments: An Example from the Emsian of Gaspé, Canada, in PG Gensel & D Edwards [eds.] Plants Invade the Land. Columbia Univ. Press:  pp. 179-203. Dinoflagellata.

Hu, K, DS Roos, & JM Murray (2002), A novel polymer of tubulin forms the conoid of Toxoplasma gondii. J. Cell Biol. 156: 1039–1050.


Iyer, LM, AM Burroughs & L Aravind (2006), The prokaryotic antecedents of the ubiquitin-signaling system and the early evolution of ubiquitin-like β-grasp domains. Genome Biol. 7: R60. Eukarya.

Iyer, R & AH Delcour (1997), Complex inhibition of OmpF and OmpC bacterial porins by polyamines. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 18595-18601. Eukarya.


Javaux, EJ, AH Knoll & MR Walter (2004), Eukaryotic diversity in mid-Proterozoic oceans: TEM evidence for eukaryotic diversity in mid-Proterozoic oceans. Geobiology 2: 121-132. Plantae.

Jelsbak, L, M Givskov & D Kaiser (2005), Enhancer-binding proteins with a forkhead-associated domain and the σ54 regulon in Myxococcus xanthus fruiting body development. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 0409371102. Eukarya.

Jenkins, C, V Kedar & JA Fuerst (2002), Gene discovery within the planctomycete division of the domain Bacteria using sequence tags from genomic DNA libraries. Genome Biol. 3: research0031. Eukarya.

Jenkins, C, R Samudrala, I Anderson, BP Hedlund, G Petroni, N Michailova, N Pinel, R Overbeek, G Rosati, & JT Staley (2002), Genes for the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in the bacterial genus Prosthecobacter. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 99: 17049-17054. Eukarya.


Kalyuzhnaya, MG, S Bowerman, O Nercessian, ME Lidstrom, & L Chistoserdova (2005), Highly divergent genes for methanopterin-linked C1 transfer reactions in Lake Washington, assessed via metagenomic analysis and mRNA detection. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 71: 8846-8854. Eukarya.

Karlin, S, L Brocchieri, A Campbell, M Cyert, & J Mrázek (2005), Genomic and proteomic comparisons between bacterial and archaeal genomes and related comparisons with the yeast and fly genomes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 102: 7309-7314. Eukarya.

Katz, ME, ZV Finkel, D Grzebyk, AH Knoll & PG Falkowski 2004), Evolutionary trajectories and biogeochemical impacts of marine eukaryotic phytoplankton. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 35: 523–56. Glaucophyta.

Keeling, PJ (1998), A kingdom’s progress: Archezoa and the origin of eukaryotes. Bioessays 20: 87–95. Microsporidia.

Keeling, PJ & NM Fast (2002), Microsporidia: Biology and evolution of highly reduced intracellular parasites. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 56: 93–116. Microsporidia.

Keeling, PJ & BS Leander (2003), Characterization of a non-canonical genetic code in the oxymonad flagellate Streblomastix strix Eukaryota, Oxymonadida). J. Mol. Biol. 326:1337-1349. Streblomastigidae.

Keeling, PJ, MA Luker, & JD Palmer (2000), Evidence from beta-tubulin phylogeny that Microsporidia evolved from within the Fungi. Mol. Biol. Evol. 17: 23–31. Microsporidia.

Knoll, AH (1996), Archean and proterozoic paleontology, in J Jansonius & DC McGregor [eds.], Palynology: Principles and Applications. Am. Assoc. Stratigr. Palynol. Found. 1: 51-80. Dinoflagellata.

Koga, Y, N Sone, S Noguchi & H Morii (2003), Transfer of pro-R hydrogen from NADH to dihydroxyacetonephosphate by sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 67: 1605-1608. Eukarya.

Koonin, EV, TG Senkevich & VV Dolja (2006), The ancient virus world and evolution of cells, Biol. Direct 1:29. Eukarya.

Krupa, A & N Srinivasan (2002), Lipopolysaccharide phosphorylating enzymes encoded in the genomes of Gram-negative bacteria are related to the eukaryotic protein kinases. Protein Sci. 11: 1580-1584.

Kudo, RR (1966), Protozoology (5th ed.), Charles C Thomas Publ., 1174 pp. Oxymonadidae, Polymastigidae, Pyrsonymphidae, Saccinobaculidae.

Kudo, T, M Ohkuma, S Moriya, S Noda & K Ohtoko 1998), Molecular phylogenetic identification of the intestinal anaerobic microbial community in the hindgut of the termite, Reticulitermes speratus, without cultivation. Extremeophiles 2: 155-161. Oxymonadida.

Kühna, S, M Langeb & LK Medlinb (2000), Phylogenetic position of Cryothecomonas inferred from nuclear-encoded small subunit Ribosomal RNA, Protist 151: 337–345. Apusomonas.


Lange, BM, T Rujan, W Martin, & R Croteau 2000), Isoprenoid biosynthesis: The evolution of two ancient and distinct pathways across genomes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 97: 13172-13177. Eukarya.

Langford, GM & S Inouyé (1979), Motility of the microtubular axostyle in pyrsonympha, J. Cell Biol. 80: 521-538.

Lecke, SB, T Tasca, AA Souto & GA De Carli (2003), Perspective of a new diagnostic for human trichomonosis. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 98: 273-276. Oxymonadida.

Lee, CH, PY Um & MH Park (2001), Structure–function studies of human deoxyhypusine synthase: identification of amino acid residues critical for the binding of spermidine and NAD. Biochem. J. 355: 841-849. Eukarya.

Lee, JJ (1990), Phylum Granuloreticulosa Foraminifera) in L Margulis, JO Corliss, M Melkonian & DJ Chapman [eds], Handbook of Protoctista: The Structure, Cultivation, Habitats and Life Histories of the Eukaryotic Microorganisms and their Descendants Exclusive of Animals, Plants and Fungi: A Guide to the Algae, Ciliates, Foraminifera, Sporozoa, Water Molds and the Other Protoctists. Jones & Bartlett Publ., pp. 524-548. Rhizaria.

Levin, LA (1994), Paleoecology and ecology of xenophyophores. Palaios 9: 32-41. Xenophyophorea.

Levine, ND, JO Corliss, FEG Cox, G Deroux, J Grain, BM Honigberg, GF Leedale, ARI Loeblich, J Lom, D Lynn, EG Merinfeld, FC Page, G Poljansky, V Sprague, J Vavra.& FG Wallace (1980), A newly revised classification of the protozoa. J. Protozool. 27: 37-58. Arthracanthida, Chaunacanthida, Holacanthida, Symphyacanthida.

Lindsay, MR, RI Webb, M Strous, MSM. Jetten, MK Butler, RJ Forde & JA Fuerst (2001), Cell compartmentalisation in planctomycetes: Novel types of structural organisation for the bacterial cell. Arch. Microbiol. 175: 413-429. Eukarya.

Longet, D, JM Archibald, PJ Keeling & J Pawlowski 2003), Foraminifera and Cercozoa share a common origin according to RNA polymerase II phylogenies. Intern. J. Systematic Evol. Microbiol. 53: 1735-1739. Rhizaria.

López-García, P & D Moreira (1999), Metabolic symbiosis at the origin of eukaryotes. Trends Biochem. Sci. 24: 88-93. Eukarya.

López-García, P, F Rodríguez-Valera & C Pedrós-Alió & D Moreira (2001), Unexpected diversity of small eukaryotes in deep-sea Antarctic plankton. Nature 409: 603-607. Acantharea.

López-García, P, F Rodríguez-Valera & D Moreira (2002), Toward the monophyly of Haeckel's Radiolaria: 18S rRNA environmental data support the sisterhood of Polycystinea and Acantharea. Mol. Biol. & Evol. 19: 118-121. Acantharea.

Lovett, JL, N Marchesini, SNJ Moreno & LD Sibley 2002), Toxoplasma gondii microneme secretion involves intracellular Ca2+ release from inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)/ryanodine- sensitive Stores. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 25870–25876.

Löwe, J & LA Amos 1998), Crystal structure of the bacterial cell-division protein FtsZ. Nature 391: 203-206. Eukarya.


Mallavarapu, A & T Mitchison 1999), Regulated actin cytoskeleton assembly at filopodium tips controls their extension and retraction. J. Cell Biol. 146: 1097-1106.

Mans, BJ, V Anantharaman, L Aravind & EV Koonin 2004), Comparative genomics, evolution and origins of the nuclear envelope and nuclear pore complex. Cell Cycle 3: 1612-1637. Eukarya.

Margulis, L & KV Schwartz (1982), Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life. Freeman. Dinoflagellata.

Margulis, L, MF Dolan & R Guerrero (2000), The chimeric eukaryote: origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate protists. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 97: 6954-6959. Eukarya, Oxymonadida.

Marrington, R, E Small, A Rodger, TR Dafforn & SG Addinall (2004), FtsZ fiber bundling is triggered by a conformational change in bound GTP. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 48821-48829. Eukarya.

Martin, F & G Kjellström (1973), Ultrastructural study of some Ordovician acritarchs from Gotland, Sweden. Neues Jahrb. Geol. Paläont. Monatsh. 1973: 44. Dinoflagellata.

Martin, W & MJ Russell (2002), On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 02tb009e. Eukarya.

Maybury, CA & KR Evans (1994), Pennsylvanian phylloid algae interpreted as shallow-water xenophyophores. Lethaia 27: 29-33. Xenophyophorea.

Mcdowall, KJ, RG Hernandez, S Lin-Chao, & SN Cohen (1993), The ams-1 and rne-3071 temperature-sensitive mutations in the ams gene are in close proximity to each other and cause substitutions within a domain that resembles a product of the Escherichia coli mre locus. J. Bacteriol. 175: 4245-4249. Eukarya.

McFadden, GI (2001), Primary and secondary endosymbiosis and the origin of plastids. J. Phycol. 37: 951-959. Glaucophyta.

Mendelson, CV (1993), Acritarchs and prasinophytes, in JH Lipps [ed.], Fossil Prokaryotes and Protists. Blackwell Scientific, pp 77-104. Dinoflagellata.

Michie, KA & J Löwe 2006), Dynamic filaments of the bacterial cytoskeleton. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 75: 467–492. Eukarya.

Mikrjukov, KA (2000), Taxonomy and phylogeny of Heliozoa: Should this taxon exist in modern classification of Protista? Zool. Zh. 79: 883-897 (transl. Entomol. Rev. 80 (Supp. 1): S35-S50.) Rhizaria.

Moldowan, JM & NM Talyzina (1998), Biogeochemical evidence for dinoflagellate ancestors in the Early Cambrian. Science 281: 1168-1169. Dinoflagellata.

Moreira, D & P López-García (2002), The molecular ecology of microbial eukaryotes unveils a hidden world. Trends Microbiol. 10: 31-38. Eukarya.

Moriya S, JB Dacks, A Takagi, S Noda, M Ohkuma, WF Doolittle & TJ Kudo (2003), Molecular phylogeny of three oxymonad genera: Pyrsonympha, Dinenympha and Oxymonas. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 50:190-197. Oxymonadida, Oxymonadidae, Polymastigidae, Pyrsonymphidae, Saccinobaculidae, Streblomastigidae.

Moriya, S, M Ohkuma, & T Kudo (1998), Phylogenetic position of symbiotic protist Dinenympha exilis in the hindgut of the termite Reticulitermes speratus inferred from the protein phylogeny of elongation factor 1a. Gene 210: 221–227. Oxymonadida.

Moriya, S, M Ohkuma, & T Kudo (2001), Molecular evolution of microtubule system of protist symbionts of termites. RIKEN Rev. 41: 75-76. Oxymonadida.

Morris, DJ & A Adams (2002), Development of Schroedera plumatellae gen. n., sp. n. (Microsporidia) in Plumatella fungosa (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata). Acta Protozool. 41: 383-396. Microsporidia.

Morrissette, NS, JM Murray & DS Roos (1997), Subpellicular microtubules associate with an intramembranous particle lattice in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. J. Cell. Sci. 110: 35-42.

Müller, A, J Rassow, J Grimm, N Machuy, TF Meyer & T Rudel (2002), VDAC and the bacterial porin PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae share mitochondrial import pathways. EMBO J. 21: 1916-1929. Eukarya.

Myung, J, KB Kim & CM Crews (2001), The ubquitin-proteasome pathway and proteasome inhibitors. Med. Res. Rev. 21: 245-273. Eukarya.


Nakamura, S, G Tanaka, T Maeda, R Kamiya, T Matsunaga & O Nikaido (1996), Assembly and function of Chlamydomonas flagellar mastigonemes as probed with a monoclonal antibody. J. Cell Sci. 109: 57-62.

Nikolaev, SI, C Berney, JF Fahrni, I Bolivar, S Polet, AP Mylnikov, VV Aleshin, NB Petrov & J Pawlowski (2004), The twilight of Heliozoa and rise of Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of amoeboid eukaryotes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 101: 8066-8071. Rhizaria.

Noda, S, M Ohkuma, A Yamada, Y Hongoh & T Kudo 2003), Phylogenetic position and in situ identification of ectosymbiotic spirochetes on protists in the termite gut. App. & Env. Microbiol. 69: 625-633. Oxymonadida.


Okada, Y, M Wachi, A Hirata, K Suzuki, K Nagai, & M Matsuhashi (1994), Cytoplasmic axial filaments in Escherichia coli cells: Possible function in the mechanism of chromosome segregation and cell division. J. Bacteriol. 176: 917-922. Eukarya.

O'Kelly CJ, MA Farmer & TA Nerad (1999), Ultrastructure of Trimastix pyriformis (Klebs) and similarities of Trimastix species with retortamonads and jakobids. Protist 150: 149-162. Polymastigidae.

Onoda, T, J Enokizono, H Kaya, A Oshima, P Freestone, & V Norris (2000), Effects of calcium and calcium chelators on growth and morphology of Escherichia coli L-form NC-7. J. Bacteriol. 182: 1419-1422.  Eukarya.

Op den Camp, HJM, B Kartal, D Guven, LAMP van Niftrik, SCM Haaijer, WRL van der Star, KT van de Pas-Schoonen, A Cabezas, Z Ying, MC Schmid, MMM Kuypers, J van de Vossenberg, HR Harhangi, C Picioreanu, MCM van Loosdrecht, JG Kuenen, M Strous & MSM Jetten (2006), Global impact and application of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 34: 174-178. Eukarya.


Pagliarini, DJ, CA Worby & JE Dixon (2004), A PTEN-like Phosphatase with a Novel Substrate Specificity. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 38590-38596. Eukarya.

Patterson, DJ (1999), The diversity of eukaryotes. Amer. Naturalist 65: S96-S124. Apusomonadida, Eukarya.

Patterson, DJ & M Zölffel (1991), Heterotrophic flagellates of uncertain taxonomic position, in DJ Patterson & J Larsen [eds.] The Biology of Free-living Heterotrophic Flagellates: Systematics Association Special Volume No. 45. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 427–475. Amastigomonas, Apusomonadida, Apusomonas.

Paul, TR & TJ Beveridge (1992), Reevaluation of envelope profiles and cytoplasmic ultrastructure of Mycobacteria processed by conventional embedding and freeze-substitution protocols. J. Bacteriol. 174: 6508-6517. Eukarya.

Pawlowski, J, M Holzmann, J Fahrni & SL Richardson, (2003), Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. J. Euk. Microbiol. 50: 483-487. Rhizaria, Xenophyophorea.

Pearson, A, M Budin & JJ Brocks (2003), Phylogenetic and biochemical evidence for sterol synthesis in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 100: 15352-15357. Eukarya.

Peretó, J, P López-García & D Moreira (2004), Ancestral lipid biosynthesis and early membrane evolution. Trends Biochem. Sci. 29: 469-477. Eukarya.

Petroni, G, S Spring, K-H Schleifer, F Verni & G Rosati (2000), Defensive extrusive ectosymbionts of Euplotidium Ciliophora) that contain microtubule-like structures are bacteria related to Verrucomicrobia. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 97: 1813-1817. Eukarya.

Peyretaillade, E, C Biderre, P Peyret, F Duffieux, G Méténier, M Gouy, B Michot & CP Vivarès (1998), Microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a unicellular eukaryote with an unusual chromosomal dispersion of ribosomal genes and a LSU rRNA reduced to the universal core. Nucleic Acids Res. 26: 3513-3520. Microsporidia.

Peyretaillade, E, V Broussolle, P Peyret, G Méténier, M Gouy, & CP Vivarès (1998), Microsporidia, amitochondrial protists, possess a 70-kDa heat shock protein gene of mitochondrial evolutionary origin. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15: 683-689. Microsporidia.

Polet, S, C Berney, J Fahrni & J Pawlowski (2004), Small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Phaeodarea challenge the monophyly of Haeckel’s Radiolaria. Protist 155: 53-63. Rhizaria.

Pollingher, U (1987), Ecology: freshwater systems, in FJR Taylor [ed.], The Biology of Dinoflagellates. Blackwell Scientific, pp. 502-529. Dinoflagellata.

Porter SM & AH Knoll (2000), Testate amoebae in the Neoproterozoic Era: evidence from vase-shaped microfossils in the Chuar Group, Grand Canyon. Paleobiology 26: 360-385.

Pratt, LM, RE Summons & GB Hieshima (1991), Sterane and triterpane biomarkers in the Precambrian Nonesuch Formation, North American Midcontinent Rift. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta,  55: 911-916. Dinoflagellata.


Raoult, D, S Audic, C Robert, C Abergel, P Renesto, H Ogata, B LaScola, M Suzan, J-M & Claverie (2004), The 1.2-megabase genome sequence of Mimivirus. Science 306: 1344-1350. Eukarya.

Reumann, S, E Maier, HW Heldt & R Benz (1998), Permeability properties of the porin of spinach leaf peroxisomes. Eur. J. Biochem. 251: 359-366. Eukarya.

Riemann, F, OS Tendal & FX Gingele (1993), Reticulammina antarctica nov. spec. (Xenophyophora, Protista) from the Weddell Sea, and aspects of the nutrition of xenophyophores. Polar Biol. 13: 543-547. Xenophyophorea.

Roger, AJ (1999), Reconstructing early events in eukaryotic evolution. Am. Naturalist 154: S146–S163. Eukarya.

Rose, DM 2006), The role of the α4 integrin-paxillin interaction in regulating leukocyte trafficking. Exper. Mol. Med. 38: 191-195. Eukarya.

Ruiz-González, MX & I Marin (2006), Proteasome-related HslU and HslV genes typical of Eubacteria are widespread in eukaryotes. J. Mol. Evol. 63: 504-512 (reviewed abstract only). Eukarya.

Ruzheinikov, SN, J Burke, S Sedelnikova, PJ Baker, R Taylor, PA Bullough, NM Muir, MG Gore & DW Rice (2001), Glycerol dehydrogenase: Structure, specificity, and mechanism of a family III polyol dehydrogenase. Structure 9: 789–802. Eukarya.


Sam-Yellowe TY, H Shio & ME Perkins 1988), Secretion of Plasmodium falciparum rhoptry protein into the plasma membrane of host erythrocytes. J. Cell Biol. 106: 1507-1513.

Schouten, S, M Strous, MMM Kuypers, WIC Rijpstra, M Baas, CJ Schubert, MSM Jetten, & JSS Damsté (2004), Stable carbon isotopic fractionations associated with inorganic carbon fixation by anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 3785–3788. Eukarya.

Shimuzu, Y (1987), Dinoflagellate toxins, in FJR Taylor [ed.], The Biology of Dinoflagellates. Bot. Monogr., 21: 282-315. Dinoflagellata.

Silberman, JD, AGB Simpson, J Kulda, I Cepicka, V Hampl, PJ Johnson & AJ Roger (2002), Retortamonad flagellates are closely related to diplomonads — implications for the history of mitochondrial function in eukaryote evolution, Mol. Biol. Evol. 19: 777-786. Oxymonadida.

Simonson, AB, JA Servin, RG Skophammer, CW Herbold, MC Rivera & JA Lake (2005), Decoding the genomic tree of life. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 102: 6608-6613. Eukarya.

Simpson, AGB, R Radek, JB Dacks, & CJ O'Kelly 2002), How oxymonads lost their groove: an ultrastructural comparison of Monocercomonoides and excavate taxa. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 49: 239-248. Eukarya, Oxymonadida, Polymastigidae, Pyrsonymphidae.

Stechmann, A & T Cavalier-Smith (2002), Rooting the eukaryote tree by using a derived gene fusion. Science 297: 89–91.

Steiner, J, B Pfanzagl, Y Ma W Löffelhardt (2002), Evolution and biology of cyanelles. Biol. & Environ.: Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. 102B: 7–9.

Strother, PK (1996), Acritarchs, in J Jansonius & DC McGregor [eds.], Palynology: Principles and Applications. Am. Assoc. Stratigr. Palynol. Found. 1: 81-106. Dinoflagellata.

Strous, M, E Pelletier, S Mangenot, T Rattei, A Lehner, MW Taylor, M Horn, H Daims, D Bartol-Mavel, P Wincker, V Barbe, N Fonknechten, D Vallenet, B Segurens, C Schenowitz-Truong, C Médigue, A Collingro, B Snel, BE Dutilh, HJM Op den Camp, C van der Drift, I Cirpus, KT van de Pas-Schoonen, HR Harhangi, L van Niftrik, M Schmid, J Keltjens, J van de Vossenberg, B Kartal, H Meier, D Frishman, MA Huynen, H-W Mewes, J Weissenbach, MSM Jetten, M Wagner & D Le Paslier (2006), Deciphering the evolution and metabolism of an anammox bacterium from a community genome. Nature 440: 790-794. Eukarya.

Sugiyama, S, DG Vassylyev, M Matsushima, K Kashiwagi, K Igarashi & K Morikawa (1996), Crystal structure of PotD, the primary receptor of the polyamine transport system in Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 9519-9525. Eukarya.

Summons, RE & MR Walter (1990), Molecular fossils and microfossils of procaryotes and protists from Proterozoic sediments. Amer. J. Sci. 290-A: 212-244. Dinoflagellata.

Sun, J & JK Liao (2002), Functional interaction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase with a voltage-dependent anion channel. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 99: 13108-13113. Eukarya.


Tappan, H (1980), The Paleobiology of Plant Protists. Freeman, 1028 pp. Dinoflagellata.

Taylor, FJR (1987), General and marine ecosystems, in FJR Taylor & U Pollingher, Ecology of dinoflagellates, in FJR Taylor [ed.], The Biology of Dinoflagellates. Botanical Monographs, 21: 399-502. Dinoflagellata.

Teeling, H, T Lombardot, M Bauer, W Ludwig & FO Glöckner (2004), Evaluation of the phylogenetic position of the planctomycete ‘Rhodopirellula baltica’ SH 1 by means of concatenated ribosomal protein sequences, DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit sequences and whole genome trees. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 791-801. Eukarya.

Tendal, OS (1972), A monograph of the Xenophyophoria (Rhizopodea, Protozoa). Galathea Report 12: 7-99. Xenophyophorea.

Thaw, P, SE Sedelnikova, T Muranova, S Wiese, S Ayora, JC Alonso, AB Brinkman, J Akerboom, J van der Oost & JB Rafferty (2006), Structural insight into gene transcriptional regulation and effector binding by the Lrp/AsnC family. Nucleic Acids Res. 34: 1439-1449. Eukarya.

Torres, AM (1997), Fossil algae were very different from xenophyophores. Lethaia 29: 287-288. Xenophyophorea.


Ueda-Nishimura, K & K Mikata (2000), Two distinct 18S rRNA secondary structures in Dipodascus (Hemiascomycetes). Microbiol. 146: 1045-1051.

Umland, TC, EC Wolff, MH Park & DR Davies 2004), A new crystal structure of deoxyhypusine synthase reveals the configuration of the active enzyme and of an enzyme-NAD-inhibitor ternary complex. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 28697-28705. Eukarya.


van den Ent, F, L Amos & J Löwe (2001), Bacterial ancestry of actin and tubulin. Curr. Op. Microbiol. 4: 634–638. Eukarya.

Vayssié, L, N Garreau de Loubresse & L Sperling 2000), Growth and form of secretory granules involves stepwise assembly but not differential sorting of a family of secretory proteins in Paramecium. J. Cell Sci. 114: 875-886.


Wall, D & B Dale (1968), Modern dinoflagellate cysts and evolution of the Peridiniales. Micropaleontology, 14: 265-304. Dinoflagellata.

Woese, CR 2002), On the evolution of cells. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 99: 8742-8747. Eukarya.

Wollenberg, K & JC Swaffield (2001), Evolution of proteasomal ATPases. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18: 962-974. Eukarya.

Wu, J, MJ Matunis, D Kraemer, G Blobel & E Coutavas (1995), Nup358, a cytoplasmically exposed nucleoporin with peptide repeats, ran-GTP binding sites, zinc fingers, a cyclophylin A homologous domain, and a leucine-rich region. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 14209-14213. Eukarya.

Wu, J, MA Patel, AK Sundaram & RW Woodward (2004), Functional and biochemical characterization of a recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase. Biochem. J. 381: 185–193. Eukarya.


Xu, J-J, J-H Zhang, L Wang, J Zhou, H-D Huang, J-H Wu, Y Zhong & Y-Y Shi (2006), Solution structure of Urm1 and its implications for the origin of protein modifiers. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (USA) 103: 11625–11630. Eukarya.


Yoder, TJ, CG Pearson, K Bloom, & TNol. Biol. Cell 14: 3494–3505.


Zelensky, AN & JE Gready (2005), The C-type lectin-like domain superfamily. FEBS J. 272: 6179-6217. Eukarya.

Zettler, LA, ML Sogin & DA Caron (1997), Phylogenetic relationships between the Acantharea and the Polycystinea: A molecular perspective on Haeckel's Radiolaria. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 94: 11411-11416. Acantharea.

Zravý, J (2001), The interrelationships of metazoan parasites: a review of phylum- and higher-level hypotheses from recent morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Folia Parasitol. 48: 81-103. Eukarya.

contact us
last revised ATW070103
checked ATW061210, edited RFVS111204
Public Domain Dedication
All material by ATW may be used under the terms of a
Public Domain Dedication.