The Vertebrates References

Sauropterygia: References

Abbreviated Dendrogram
Diapsida ├─Archosauromorpha │ └─Lepidosauromorpha ├─Sauropterygia │ ├─Placodontia │ ├─Pachypleurosauridae │ └─┬─Nothosauridae │ └─Plesiosauria │ ├─Pliosauroidea │ └─Plesiosauroidea │ ├─Elasmosauridae │ └─Cryptocleidoidea └─Lepidosauriformes ├─Sphenodontia └─Squamata


Adams, Dawn A.; 1997 Trinacromerum bonneri, new species. Last and fastest pliosaur of the Western Interior Seaway ; Texas Journal of Science ; 49 (3) ; 179-198
Dolichorhynchops bonneri

An osteological study of Nyctosaurus and Trinacromerum with a description of a new species of Nyctosaurus, Unpub. Masters Thesis, Fort Hays State University, 63 pages
Dolichorhynchops osborni

Borsuk-Bialynicka, M, & Evans, S.E. (2009). A long-necked archosauromorph from the Early Triassic of Poland. Paleontologica Polonica 65: 203-234. pdf
Pachypleurosauridae - Notes

Brown, DS (1981), The Upper Jurassic Plesiosauroidea (Reptilia) and a  review of the phylogeny and classification of the Plesiosauria. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist., Geol. 35: 253-347.
Colymbosaurus, Cryptocleididae, Elasmosauridae, Microcleidus, Muraenosaurus, Plesiosauroidea, Pliosauroidea

Carpenter, K. 1996. A Review of short-necked plesiosaurs from the Cretaceous of the western interior, North America, Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläeontologie Abhandlungen, (Stuttgart) 201(2):259-287.
Dolichorhynchops bonneri

Carpenter, K (1997), Comparative cranial anatomy of two North American Cretaceous plesiosaurs, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles Academic Press, pp. 191-216.
Liopleurodon, Peloneustes.

Carroll, RL (1981), Plesiosaur ancestors from the Upper Permian of Madagascar. Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 293: 315-383.

Carroll, RL (1988), Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, WH Freeman & Co., 698 pp.

Carroll, RL & Gaskill, P (1985), The nothosaur Pachypleurosaurus and the origin of plesiosaurs. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 309: 343-393.
Anarosaurus, Neusticosaurus, Nothosauria, Nothosauridae, Nothosaurus, Plesiosauria, Sauropterygia, Simosaurus

Yen-nien Cheng, Xiao-chun Wu & Qiang Ji, Triassic marine reptiles gave birth to live young. Nature 432, 383-386 (18 November 2004) | doi:10.1038/nature03050; pdf

Cheng, Y.-N.; Sato, T.; Wu, X.-C.; and Li, C. (2006). "First complete pistosauroid from the Triassic of China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26 (2): 501-503.
Pistosauridae - Overview, Augustasaurus, Yunguisaurus

Colbert, E.H., 1969 Evolution of the Vertebrates, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd ed.

Cox, B, RJG Savage, B Gardiner & D Dixon (1988), Collins Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals. Collins Publishers Aus. 312 pp.

Cruickshank, ARI (1994), A juvenile plesiosaur (Reptilia: Plesiosauria) from the Lower Lias (Hettangian: Lower Jurassic) of Lyme Regis, England: a pliosaurid-plesiosaurid intermediate? Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 112: 151-178.

Cruickshank, ARI & JA Long 1997), A new species of pliosaurid reptile from the Early Cretaceous Birdsong sandstone of Western Australia. Recs. W. Aus. Mus. 18.

Cruickshank, ARI, P Small & M Taylor (1991), Dorsal nostrils and hydrodynamically driven underwater olfaction in plesiosaurs. Nature 352: 62-64.

J. Cubo, F. Ponton, M. Laurin, E. De Margerie and J. Castanet, Phylogenetic Signal in Bone Microstructure of Sauropsids, Syst Biol (2005) 54(4): 562-574 doi:10.1080/10635150591003461 online/pdf
Pachypleurosauridae - Clade or Grade?

deRicqlès, A (1989), Les mécanismes hétérochroniques dans le retour des tétrapodes au milieu aquatique, in Colloque International du CNRS : Ontogénèse et Evolution, Dijon, septembre 1986, pp. 171-178.

deRicqlès A, Padian K, Knoll F, Horner JR (2008) On the origin of high growth rates in archosaurs and their ancient relatives: complementary histological studies on Triassic archosauriforms and the problem of a ''phylogenetic signal'' in bone histology. Annales de Palaeontologie 94: 57-76.
Pachypleurosauridae - Physiological diversity

Cajus G. Diedrich, C.G. (2011), Fossil middle triassic "sea cows" - placodont reptiles as macroalgae feeders along the north-western tethys coastline with pangaea and in the germanic basin Natural Science, Vol.3, No.1, 9-27 doi:10.4236/ns.2011.31002 SciRes. Online
Triassic sea cows, Placodus

Enlow, D.H. (1963). Principles of Bone Remodeling. An account of post-natal growth and remodeling processes in long bones and the mandible. Springfield, IL: C.C. Thomas.
Pachypleurosauridae - Physiological diversity

New data regarding the skull of Dolichorhynchops osborni (Plesiosauroidea: Polycotylidae) from rediscovered photos of the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology specimen. Paludicola 4(3):74-80.
Dolichorhynchops osborni

Frey, E & Reiss, J (1982), Considerations concerning plesiosaur locomotion. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 164: 188-192.

Gaudant, J & FJ Meunier 1996), Observation d'un cas de pachyostose chez un Clupeidae fossile du Miocène terminal de l'ouest Algérien, Sardina ? crassa (Sauvage, 1873). Cybium 20: 169-83.

Gauthier, J. A. (1986), "Saurischian monophyly and the origin of birds", in Padian, K., The Origin of Birds and the Evolution of Flight. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 8, California Academy of Sciences, pp. 1-55, ISBN 780940228146
Pachypleurosauridae - Clade or Grade?

Godfrey, SJ (1984), Plesiosaur sub-aqueous locomotion: a reappraisal. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 11: 661-672.

Hampe, O (1992), Ein grosswuechsiger pliosauride Reptilia: Plesiosauria) aus der Unterkreide (oberes Aptium) von Kolumbien. Courier Forsch. Senckenberg. 145: 1-32.

Holmes R, Y-N Cheng & X-C Wu (2008), New information on the skull of Keichousaurus hui (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) with comments on sauropterygian interrelationships. J. Vert. Paleont. 28: 76-84.

Hugi, J (2011) The long bone histology of Ceresiosaurus (Sauropterygia, Reptilia) in comparison to other eosauropterygians from the Middle Triassic of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland/Italy). Swiss Journal of Palaeontology [doi: 10.1007/s13358-011-0023-6].
Pachypleurosauridae - Physiological diversity

Hugi, J., Scheyer, T. M., Sander, P. M., Klein, N., and M. R. Sánchez-Villagra. 2011. Long bone microstructure gives new insights into the life of pachypleurosaurids from the Middle Triassic of Monte San Giorgio, Switzerland/Italy. Compte Rendus Palevol 10:413-426. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2011.03.009
Pachypleurosauridae - Physiological diversity

Jiang D-Y, Rieppel O, Motani R, Hao W-C, Sun Y-I, Schmitz L and Sun Z-Y. 2008. A new middle Triassic eosauropterygian (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) from southwestern China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28:1055-1062.

Ketchum, H. F., and Benson, R. B. J. (2010). "Global interrelationships of Plesiosauria (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) and the pivotal role of taxon sampling in determining the outcome of phylogenetic analyses". Biological Reviews 85: 361–392. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2009.00107.x. PMID 20002391.

Hilary F. Ketchum and Roger B. J. Benson (2011). "A new pliosaurid (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Oxford Clay Formation (Middle Jurassic, Callovian) of England: evidence for a gracile, longirostrine grade of Early-Middle Jurassic pliosaurids". Special Papers in Palaeontology 86: 109–129. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01083.x.

Klein N (2010) Long Bone Histology of Sauropterygia from the Lower Muschelkalk of the Germanic Basin Provides Unexpected Implications for Phylogeny. PLoS ONE 5(7): e11613. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011613 online
Pachypleurosauridae - Clade or Grade?, Pachypleurosauridae - Physiological diversity, Anarosaurus, Nothosauridae, Pistosauridae

Oskar Kuhn, 1969 Handbuch der Palaeoherpetologie, Teil 9: Proganosauria, Bolosauria, Placodontia, Araeoscelidia, Trilophosauria, Weigeltisauria, Millerosauria, Rhynchocephalia, Protorosauria, Gustav Fisher-Verlag, Stuttgart
Sauropterygia, Placodontia - Evolutionary relationships

Li, Chun; Olivier Rieppel, Xiao-Chun Wu, Li-Jun Zhao and Li-Ting Wang (2011). "A new Triassic marine reptile from southwestern China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31 (2): 303–312. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.550368.

Lucas, Spencer G. 2001, Chinese Fossil Vertebrates, Columbia University Press, New York
Hanosaurus, Keichousaurus

Jun Liu, Olivier Rieppel, Da-Yong Jiang, Jonathan C. Aitchison, Ryosuke Motani, Qi-Yue Zhang, Chang-Yong Zhou, and Yuan-Yuan Sun, 2011, A New Pachypleurosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Lower Middle Triassic of Southwestern China and the Phylogenetic Relationships of Chinese Pachypleurosaurs Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31(2):292-302. 2011 doi: 10.1080/02724634.2011.550363
Pachypleurosauridae - Clade or Grade?

Mazin, J.-M. & Pinna, G. 1993. Palaeoecology of the armoured placodonts. Paleontologia Lombarda, N. S. 2: 83-91.

Molnar, RE (1991), Fossil reptiles of Australia, in P Vickers-Rich, JM Monaghan, RF Baird & TH Rich (eds.), Vertebrate Paleontology of Australia. Pioneer Design Studio (Melbourne), pp.605-689.

Müller, J. 2004. The relationships among diapsid reptiles and the influence of taxon selection. In: G. Arratia, M.V.H. Wilson, and R. Cloutier (eds) Recent Advances in the Origin and Early Evolution of Vertebrates, 379-408. Verlag Dr Friedrich Pfeil, München.
Pachypleurosauridae - Notes

O'Keefe, F. R., 2001: A cladistic analysis and taxonomic revision of the Plesiosauria (Reptilia: Sauropterygia). Acta Zoologica Fennica: Vol. #213, pp. 1-63
Augustasaurus, Thalassiodracon

O'Keefe, F. R. 2004. On the cranial anatomy of the polycotylid plesiosaurs, including new material of Polycotylus latipinnis Cope, from Alabama. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 24(2):326-340. Dolichorhynchops osborni

O'Keefe, F. R., . 2008. Cranial anatomy and taxonomy of Dolichorhynchops bonneri new combination, a polycotylid (Sauropteryga: Plesiosauria) from the Pierre Shale of Wyoming and South Dakota. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 28(3):664-676
Dolichorhynchops bonneri

O'Keefe, F. R. and P. M. Sander (1999) Paleontological paradigms and inferences of phylogenetic pattern: a case study. Paleobiology 25: 518-533 abstract
On discovering ancestors

O'Keefe, FR, O Rieppel & PM Sander (1999), Shape disassociation and inferred heterochrony in a clade of pachypleurosaurs Reptilia, Sauropterygia). Paleobiology 25: 504-517.
Neusticosaurus, Pachypleurosauridae

Ray S, Mukherjee D and S Bandyopadhyay S 2009 Growth patterns of fossil vertebrates as deduced from bone microstructure: case studies from India; J. Biosci. 34 661-672] DOI 10.1007/s12038-009-0055-x pdf
Pachypleurosauridae - Physiological diversity

Reid, R.E.H. (1984). "Primary bone and dinosaurian physiology". Geological Magazine 121 (06): 589-598. doi:10.1017/S0016756800030739.
Pachypleurosauridae - Physiological diversity

Reid, R.E.H (1997). "How dinosaurs grew". In Farlow, J.O. and Brett-Surman, M.K.. The Complete Dinosaur. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 403-413. ISBN 0-253-33349-0.
Pachypleurosauridae - Physiological diversity

Rieppel, O.. 1989. A New Pachypleurosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of Monte San Giorgio, Switzerland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 323(1212):1-73 [J. Mueller/T. Liebrecht]
Pachypleurosauridae - Clade or Grade?

O. Rieppel. 1998. The systematic status of Hanosaurus hupehensis (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) from the Triassic of China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18(3):545-557

Rieppel, O., (2000), Sauropterygia I, placodontia, pachypleurosauria, nothosauroidea, pistosauroidea: In: Handbuch der Palaoherpetologie, part 12A, 134pp. Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil
Pachypleurosauridae - Clade or Grade?

Rieppel, Olivier & Lin, Kebang. 1995. Pachypleurosaurs (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the lower Muschelkalk, and a review of the Pachypleurosauroidea. Fieldiana, Geology, new series, no. 32 online

Rieppel, O (1989), A new pachypleurosaur Reptilia: Sauopterygia) from the Middle Triassic of Monte San Giorgio, Switzerland. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 323: 1-73.
Anarosaurus, Dactylosaurus, Keichousaurus, Neusticosaurus, Nothosauria, Pachypleurosauridae,Serpianosaurus, Simosaurus

Rieppel, O (1995), The pachypleurosaur Neusticosaurus (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of Perledo, Northern Italy. N. Jahrb. Geol. Pal. Mon. 1995: 205-216. 
, Pachypleurosauridae, Serpianosaurus.   

Rieppel, O (1997), Sauropterygia: Introduction, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles Academic Press, pp. 107-119.

Rieppel, O. 1997b. Revision of the Sauropterygian reptile genus Cymatosaurus v. Fritsch, 1894, and the relationships of Germanosaurus Nopcsa, 1928, from the Middle Triassic of Europe. Fieldiana. Geology, new ser., no. 36 Online/pdf

Rieppel, Olivier, (2001). The cranial anatomy of Placochelys placodonta Jaekel, 1902, and a review of the Cyamodontoidea (Reptilia, Placodonta). Fieldiana, Geology, new series, no. 45. Online
Cyamodontoidea, Placochelys

Rieppel, O & H Hagdorn 1997), Paleobiogeography of Middle Triassic Sauropterygia in Central and Western Europe, in Callaway, JM & EL Nicholls (eds), Ancient Marine Reptiles, Academic Press, pp. 121-44.

Rieppel, O & L Kebang (1995), Pachypleurosaurs (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) from the Lower Muschelkalk, and a review of the Pachypleurosauroidea. Fieldiana Geol. N.S. 32: 1-44.
Anarosaurus, Dactylosaurus, Pachypleurosauridae.

Rieppel O, Sander PM and Storrs GW 2002. The skull of the pistosaur Augustasaurus from the Middle Triassic of northwestern Nevada. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 22(3):577-592. pdf
Pistosauridae - Overview, Augustasaurus

Rieppel, O & R Wild (1996), A revision of the genus Nothosaurus (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Germanic Triassic, with comments on the status of Conchiosaurus clavatus. Fieldiana Geol. No.1479, 82 pp. 

Robinson, JA (1975), The locomotion of plesiosaurs. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 149: 286-332.

Robinson, JA (1977), Intercorporal force transmission in plesiosaurs. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 153: 88-128.

Sachs, S (2005), Tuarangisaurus australis sp. nov. (Plesiosauria: Elasmosauridae) from the Lower Cretaceous of northeastern Queensland, with additional notes on the phylogeny of the Elasmosauridae. Mem. Queensl. Mus., 50: 425-440.

Sander, PM (1989), The pachypleurosaurids (Reptilia: Nothosauria) from the Middle Triassic of Monte San Giorgio (Switzerland) with the description of a new species. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 325: 561-666.
Neusticosaurus, Serpianosaurus

Sander PM, Rieppel OC and Bucher H 1997. A new pistosaurid (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Middle Triassic of Nevada and its implications for the origin of the plesiosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17:526-533.

Adam S. Smith and Gareth J. Dyke (2008). "The skull of the giant predatory pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni: implications for plesiosaur phylogenetics". Naturwissenschaften 95: 975-980. doi:10.1007/s00114-008-0402-z. pdf

Adam S. Smith and Peggy Vincent (2010). "A new genus of pliosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Lower Jurassic of Holzmaden, Germany". Palaeontology 53 (5): 1049-1063. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2010.00975.x. pdf

Sternberg, G. F. and M. V. Walker. 1957. Report on a plesiosaur skeleton from western Kansas. Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, 60(1):86-87 Dolichorhynchops osborni

Storrs, G. W. 1993. Function and phylogeny in sauropterygian (Diapsida) evolution. American Journal of Science. 293-A. 63-90. pdf
Placodontia - Evolutionary relationships

Storrs, G. W. 1997, Morphological and taxonomic clarification of the genus Plesiosaurus, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles Academic Press, pp. 145-190.

Storrs, GW & MA Taylor (1996), Cranial anatomy of a new plesiosaur genus from the lowermost Lias Rhaetian/Hettangian) of Street, Somerset, England. J. Vert. Paleontol. 16: 403-420.

Tarsitano, S & Riess, J (1982), Plesiosaur locomotion -- underwater flight versus rowing. N. Jb. Geol. Palaont. Abh. 164: 193-194.

Taylor, MA (1981), Plesiosaur rigging and ballasting. Nature 290: 628-9
Plesiosauria, Plesiosauroidea.

Taylor, MA (1986), Lifestyle of plesiosaurs.  Nature 319: 179.

Taylor, MA (1992), Functional anatomy of the head of a large aquatic predator Rhomaleosaurus zetlandicus Plesiosauria: Reptilia) from the Toarcian (Lower  Jurassic) of Yorkshire, England. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 335: 247-280.

Taylor, MA & ARI Cruickshank (1993), A plesiosaur from the Linksfield Erratic (Rhaetian, Upper Triassic) near Elgin, Morayshire. Scot. J. Geol. 29: 191-196.

Welles, SP (1962), A new species of elasmosaur from the Aptian of Columbia, and a review of the Cretaceous plesiosaurs. Univ. Calif. Publ. in Geol. Sci. 46: 54.

White, TE (1940) Holotype of Plesiosaurus longirostris Blake and the classification of the plesiosaurs. J. Paleontol. 14: 451-467.
Macroplata, Microcleidus, Sthenarasaurus.

Zhang, Y (1985), A new plesiosaur from Middle Jurassic of Sichuan Basin. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 23: 235-240.

Williston, S. W. 1902. Restoration of Dolichorhynchops osborni, a new Cretaceous plesiosaur, Kansas University Science Bulletin, 1(9):241-244, 1 plate.
Dolichorhynchops osborni

Williston, S. W. 1903. North American plesiosaurs, Field Columbian Museum, Pub. 73, Geological Series, 2(1):1-79, 29 plates.
Dolichorhynchops osborni

Wu X-C, Cheng Y-N, Li C, Zhao L-J and Sato T 2011. New Information on Wumengosaurus delicatomandibularis Jiang et al., 2008, (Diapsida: Sauropterygia), with a Revision of the Osteology and Phylogeny of the Taxon. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 31(1):70–83.
Pachypleurosauridae - Clade or Grade, Wumengosaurus

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