The Vertebrates References

Synapsida: References

Abbreviated Dendrogram
Amniota │ └─Synapsida ├─Caseasauria X │ ├─Eothyrididae X │ └─Caseidae X └─Eupelycosauria ├─Varanopseidae X └─┬─Ophiacodontidae X └─┬─Edaphosauridae X └─Sphenacodontia ├─Sphenacodontidae X └─Therapsida



Bailey, JB (1997), Neural spine elongation in dinosaurs: sailbacks or buffalo-backs? J. Paleontol. 71: 1124-1146. Ianthasaurus.

Battail B & MV Surkov (2000), Mammal-like reptiles from Russia in MJ Benton, MA Shishkin, DM Unwin & EN Kurochkin (eds.), The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia, Cambridge Univ. Press, pp 86-119. Sphenacodontia.

Bennett, SC (1996), Aerodynamics and thermoregulatory function of the dorsal sail of Edaphosaurus. Paleobiology 22: 496-506. Ianthasaurus.

Carroll RL (1988), Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, WH Freeman & Co., 698 pp. Overview

Colbert EH (1969), Evolution of the Vertebrates. John Wiley & Sons. Pelycosauria.

Dilkes DW & RR Reisz (1996), First record of a basal syanapsid ("mammal-like reptile") in Gondwana. Proc. Royal. Soc. Lond. B 263: 1165-1170. Aerosaurus, Elliotsmithia, Synapsida, Varanops, Varanopseidae.

Hopson JA (1991), Systematics of the nonmammalian Synapsida and implications for patterns of evolution in synapsids, in H-P Schultze & L Trueb [eds], Origins of the Higher Groups of Tetrapods: Controversy and Consensus. Comstock, pp. 635-693. Edaphosauridae, Ianthasaurus.

Hopson JA & HR Barghusen 1986), An analysis of therapsid relationships in N Hotton, III, PD MacLean, JJ Roth & EC Roth (eds.), The Ecology and Biology of Mammal-like Reptiles, Smithsonian Inst. Press, pp. 83-106. Sphenacodontia.

Hurlburt G (1999), Comparison of body mass estimation techniques, using Recent reptiles and the pelycosaur Edaphosaurus boanerges. J. Vert Paleontol. 19: 338– 350. Edaphosaurus, Ianthasaurus.

Huttenlocker A, E Rega & SS Sumida (2007), New histological investigations of hyperelongate neural spines in eupelycosaurs (Amniota: Synapsida) and the affinities of Lupeosaurus kayi. J. Vert. Paleont. 27: 93A (abstr.). Edaphosauridae, Ianthasaurus.

Janis CM & J Damuth (1990), Mammals, in K McNamara (ed.) Evolutionary Trends. Belhaven Press. Overview

Langston W (1965), Oedalops campi (Reptilia: Pelycosauria) new genus and species from the Lower Permian of New Mexico, and the family Eothyrididae. Bull. Tex. Mem. Mus. #9, 47 pp. Caseasauria, Caseidae, Eothyrididae.

Langston W & RR Reisz (1981), Aerosaurus wellesi, new species, a varanopseid mammal-like reptile (Synapsida: Pelycosauria) from the Lower Permian of New Mexico. J. Vert. Paleontol. 1: 73-96. Aerosaurus.

Liem, KF, WE Bemis, WF Walker & L Grande (2001), Functional Anatomy of the Vertebrates: an Evolutionary Perspective [3rd ed.]. Harcourt College, 703+ pp. Lupeosaurus.

Lucas SG (2006), Global Permian tetrapod biostratigraphy and biochronology, in SG Lucas, G Cassinis & JW Schneider (eds.). Non-Marine Permian Biostratigraphy and Biochronology. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Publ. 265: 65-93. Edaphosaurus, Glaucosaurus.

Lund R (2000), The new actinopterygian order Guildayichthyiformes from the Lower Carboniferous of Montana (USA). Geodiversitas 22: 171-206. Eothyrididae.

Modesto SP (1994), The Lower Permian synapsid Glaucosaurus from Texas. Paleontology 37: 51–60. Edaphosauridae, Edaphosaurus, Glaucosaurus.

Modesto SP (1995), The skull of the herbivorous synapsid Edaphosaurus boanerges from the Lower Permian of Texas. Palaeontology, 38: 213–239. Edaphosauridae, Edaphosaurus,Sphenacodontia.

Modesto SP & RR Reisz (1990), A new skeleton of Ianthosaurus hardestii, a primitive edaphosaur (Synapsida: Pelycosauria) from the Upper Pennsylvanian of Kansas. Can. J. Earth Sci. 27: 834-844. Edaphosauridae, Edaphosaurus,Ianthasaurus.

Modesto SP & RR Reisz (1990a), Taxonomic status of Edaphosaurus raymondi Case. J. Paleontol. 64: 1049-1051. Edaphosaurus,Ianthasaurus.

Modesto SP, CA Sidor, BS Rubidge & J Welman (2001), A second varanopseid skull from the Upper Permian of South Africa: implications for Late Permian 'pelycosaur' evolution. Lethaia 34: 249-259. Elliotsmithia, Mycterosaurinae, Varanodontinae, Varanopseidae.

Olson EC (1968), The family Caseidae. Fieldiana 17: 225-349. Edaphosaurus, Lupeosaurus.

Reisz RR (1972), Pelycosaurian reptiles from the Middle Pennsylvanian of North America. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 144: 27-62. Synapsida, Varanopseidae.

Reisz RR (1986), Pelycosauria, Encylopedia of Paleoherpetology, Part 17A, Fischer Verlag.

Reisz RR & VS Berman (1986), Ianthosaurus hardestii n. sp., a primitive ephadosaur (Reptilia, Pelycosauria) from the Upper Pennsylvanian Rock Lake Shale near Garnett, Kansas. Can. J. Earth Sci. 23: 77-91. Edaphosauridae, Edaphosaurus, Ianthasaurus, Ophiacodontidae.

Reisz RR, DS Berman & D Scott (1992), The cranial anatomy and relationships of Secodontosaurus, an unusual mammal-like reptile (Synapsida: Sphenacodontidae) from the Early Permian of Texas. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 104: 127–184. Sphenacodontidae.

Reisz RR, DW Dilkes & DS Berman (1998), Anatomy and relationships of Elliotsmithia longiceps Broom, a small synapsid (Eupelycosauria: Varanopseidae) from the Late Permian of South Africa. J. Vert. Paleontol. 18: 602-611. Aerosaurus, Elliotsmithia, Mycterosaurinae, Mycterosaurus, Varanodontinae, Varanops, Varanopseidae.

Reisz RR, H Wilson & D Scott 1997), Varanopsieid synapsid skeletal elements from Richards Spur, a Lower Permian fissure fill near Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Okla. Geol. Notes 56: 160-170. Mycterosaurus, Sphenacodontidae, Varanopseidae.

Romer, AS (1956), Osteology of the Reptiles. Krieger Publ. Co. (1997 ed.): 772 pp. Lupeosaurus.

Romer AS & LW Price (1940), Review of the Pelycosauria. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Papers 28: 1-538. Aerosaurus, Edaphosauridae, Edaphosaurus, Elliotsmithia, Ianthasaurus, Lupeosaurus, OphiacodontidaeVaranops, Varanopseidae

Rubidge BS & CA Sidor (2001), Evolutionary patterns among Permo-Triassic therapsids. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 32: 449-480. Sphenacodontidae.

Ruxton GD (2001), Heat loss from giant extinct reptiles. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 268: 1921–1924. Ianthasaurus.

Sidor CA (2003), Evolutionary trends and the origin of the mammalian lower jaw. Paleobiology 4: 605-640. Edaphosaurus.

Sumida SS (1989), New information on the pectoral girdle and vertebral column in Lupeosaurus (Reptilia, Pelycosauria). Can. J. Earth Sci. 26: 1343-1349.Edaphosauridae, Edaphosaurus, Lupeosaurus.

van Tuinen M & EA Hadly (2004), Error in estimation of rate and time inferred from the early amniote fossil record and avian molecular clocks. J. Mol. Evol. 59: 267-276.  Archaeothyris.

Walter RM & DR Carrier (2002), Scaling of rotational inertia in murine rodents and two species of lizard. J. Exper. Biol. 205: 2135-2141. Ianthasaurus.

Williston SW & EC Case (1913), A description of Edaphosaurus Cope, in EC Case, SW Williston & MG Mehl, Permo-Carboniferous Vertebrates from New Mexico. Carnegie Inst. Publ. 181: 71-81. Edaphosauridae.

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