The Vertebrates References

Chondrichthyes References

Abbreviated Dendrogram
Thelodonti ├─Placodermi └─Eugnathostomata ├─Chondrichthyes │ ├─Eugeneodontida │ └─Chondrichthyes (Crown) │ ├─┬─Cladoselachida │ │ └─Symmoriida │ │ ├─Symmoriidae │ │ └─Holocephali │ └─Elasmobranchii │ ├─Xenacanthida │ └─Ctenacanthiformes │ ├─Ctenacanthidae │ └─Euselachii │ ├─Hybodontiformes │ └─┬─Synechodontiformes │ └─Neoselachii └─Teleostomi

The Crown Group


Adriaens, D & W Verraes (1997), The ontogeny of the chondrocranium in Clarias gariepinus: trends in siluroids. J. Fish Biol. 50: 1221-1257. Cladoselachida.

Bendix-Almgreen, SE (1971), The anatomy of Menaspis armata and the phyletic affinities of the menaspid bradydonts. Lethaia 4: 21-49. Menaspidae.

Carroll, RL (1988), Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, WH Freeman & Co., 698 pp. Chimaeroidei, Cochleodontidae, Hybodontiformes, Menaspidae, Synechodontiformes.

Cerny, R, P Lwigale, R Ericsson, D Meulemans, H-H Epperlein & M Bonner-Fraser (2004), Developmental origins and evolution of jaws: new interpretation of "maxillary" and "mandibular." Devel. Biol. 276: 225–236. Cladoselachida.

Cloutier, R & PE Ahlberg (1996), Morphology, characters, and the interrelationships of basal sarcopterygians, in LJ Stiassny LR Parent & GD Johnson (eds.), Interrelationships of Fishes. Academic Press, pp. 445-479. Cladoselachida.

Coates, MI & SEK Sequeira (1998), The braincase of a primitive shark. Trans. R. S. Edinburgh (Earth Sci.)89: 63-85. Symmoriida, Synechodontiformes.

Coates, MI & SEK Sequeira (2001), A new stethacanthid chondrichthyan from the Lower Carboniferous of Bearsden, Scotland. J. Vert. Paleontol. 21: 438-459. Damocles, Falcatidae, Stethacanthidae, Symmoriida, Symmoriidae.

Cuny, G, O Rieppel & PM Sander (2001), The shark fauna from the Middle Triassic (Anisian) of North-Western Nevada. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 133:285-301. Mucrovenator, Palaeospinacidae, Synechodontiformes, Synechodus.

Dean, B (1906), Chimæroid fishes and their development. Carnegie Inst. Publs. #32. Chimaeroidei, Myriacanthoidei

deCarvalho, MR (1996), Higher-level elasmobranch phylogeny, basal squaleans, and paraphyly, in Stiassny, MLJ, LR Parenti & GD Johnson (eds.), Interrelationships of Fishes, Academic Press: pp. 35-62. Synechodontiformes, Synechodus.

Didier, DA, BJ Stahl & R Zangerl (1994), Development and growth of compound tooth plates in Callorhinchus milii Chondrichthyes, Holocephali). J. Morphol. 222: 73-89. Chimaeroidei, Cochliodontidae, Holocephali.

Duffin, CJ & D Delsate (1993), A new myriacanthid holocephalan (Chondrichthyes) from the Early Jurassic of Luxembourg. N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 1993: 669-680. Chimaeriformes, Chimaeroidei, Holocephali, Myriacanthoidei.

Gaudin, TJ (1991), A re-examination of elasmobranch monophyly and chondrichthyan phylogeny. N. Jahrb. Geol. Paläont. Abh. 182: 133-160. Synechodus

Grogan, ED, R Lund & D Didier (1999), Description of the chimaerid jaw and its phylogenetic origins. J. Morphol. 239: 45-59. Holocephali.

Janvier, P (1996), Early Vertebrates, Oxford, 393 pp. Chimaeroidei, Cochliodontidae, Iniopterygii, Symmoriida.

Kriwet J (2003), Neoselachian remains Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Middle Jurassic of SW Germany and NW Poland. Acta Pal. Pol. 48: 583–594. Synechodus.

Kriwet J & S Klug (2004), Late Jurassic selachians (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from southern Germany: Re-evaluation on taxonomy and diversity. Zitteliana A44: 67-95. Synechodus.

Long, JA (1995), The Rise of Fishes: 500 Million Years of Evolution. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 223 pp. Chimaeroidei

Lund, R (1977), New information on the evolution of bradydont Chondrichthyes. Fieldiana Geol. 33: 521-539. Cochliodontidae, Holocephali.

Lund, R (1980), Viviparity and interutarine feeding in a new holocephalan fish from the Lower Carboniferous of Montana. Science 209: 697-699. Chimaeriformes; Myriacanthoidei.

Lund, R (1988), New information on Squatinactis caudispinatus (Chondrichthyes, Cladodontida) from the Chesterian Bear Gulch limestone of Montana. J. Vert. Paleontol. 8: 340-342. Squatinactidae

Lund, R (1990), Chondrichthyan life history styles as revealed by the 320 million years old Mississippian of Montana. Env. Biol. Fishes 27: 1-19. Chimaeroidei, Cochliodontidae, Holocephali.

Maisey, JG (1977), The fossil selachian fishes Palaeospinax Egerton, 1872 and Nemacanthus Agassiz, 1837. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 60: 259-273. Cladoselachida, Synechodus.

Maisey, JG (1981), Studies on the Paleozoic selachian genus Ctenacanthus Agassiz no. 1. Historical review and revised diagnosis of Ctenacanthus, with a list of referred taxa. Am. Mus. Nov. No. 2718, 22 pp. Ctenacanthidae.

Maisey, JG (1982), The anatomy and interrelationships of Mesozoic hybodont sharks. Amer. Mus. Nov. No. 2724, 48 pp. Cladoselachida.

Maisey, JG (1983), Cranial Anatomy of Hybodus basanus Egerton from the Lower Cretaceous of England Am. Mus. Nov. No. 2758, 64pp. Cladoselachida.

Maisey, JG (1984), Higher elasmobranch phylogeny and biostratigraphy. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 82: 33-54. Cladoselachida, Synechodontiformes, Synechodus.

Maisey, JG (1984a), Chondrichthyan phylogeny: a look at the evidence. J. Vert Paleontol.  4: 359-371. Synechodontiformes.

Maisey, JG (1985), Cranial morphology of the fossil elasmobranch Synechodus dubrisiensis. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2804, 28 pp. Synechodontiformes, Synechodus.

Maisey, JG (1993), The interrelationships of Protospinax Elasmobranchii: Hypnosqualea) reviewed in light of new material. J. Vert. Paleontol. 13: 48A (Abstract) Synechodontiformes.

Maisey, JG (2001), CT-scan reveals new cranial features in Devonian chondrichthyan "Cladodus" wildungensis. J. Vert. Paleontol. 21: 807-810. Cladoselachida.

Maisey, JG (2004), Morphology of the braincase in the broadnose sevengill shark Notorynchus (Elasmobranchii, Hexanchiformes), based on CT scanning. Amer. Mus. Nov. 3429, 52 pp. Synechodus.

Maisey, JG (2005), Braincase of the Upper Devonian shark Cladodoides wildungensis (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii), with observations on the braincase in early chondrichthyans. Bul. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 288, 103 pp. Chondrichthyes Crown Group.

Miller, RF, R Cloutier & S Turner (2003), The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period. Nature 425: 501-504.

Patterson, C (1965), The phylogeny of the chimaeroids. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 249: 101-219. Chimaeriformes, Chimaeroidei, Holocephali, Menaspidae, Myriacanthoidei.

Patterson, C (1992), Interpretation of the toothplates of chimaeroid fishes. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 106: 33-61. Holocephali.

Rees, J (1998), Early Jurassic selachians from the Hasle Formation on Bornholm, Denmark. Acta Pal. Pol. 43: 439-452.

Schaeffer, B (1981), The xenacanth shark neurocranium, with comments on elasmobranch monophyly. Bul. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 169, 66 pp. Cladoselachida.

Shirai, S (1996), Phylogenetic interrelationships of neoselachians (Chondrichthyes: Euselachii), in Stiassny, MLJ, LR Parenti & GD Johnson (eds.), Interrelationships of Fishes, Academic Press: pp. 9-34. Synechodontiformes.

Stahl, BJ (1988), Reconstruction of the head skeleton of the fossil elasmobranch, Phoebodus heslerorum Pisces, Chondrichthyes). Copeia 1988: 858-866. Phoebodontidae.

Thies, D (1991), Palaeospinax, Synechodus and/or Paraorthacodus? The problem of palaeospinacid genera (Pisces, Neoselachii, Palaeospinacidae). N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 1991: 549-552. Synechodontiformes.

Thies, D (1993), Palaeospinax, Synechodus and/or Paraorthacodus. Is the problem of palaeospinacid genera (Pisces, Neoselachii) solved?. N. Jb. Geol. Paläont. Mh. 1993: 724-732. Synechodontiformes.

Thies, D (1995), Placoid scales (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii) from the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) of Northern Germany. J. Vert. Paleontol. 15: 463-481. Synechodontiformes.

Underwood, CJ (2002), Sharks, rays and a chimaeroid from the Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) of Ringstead, Southern England. Palaeontology 45: 297-325. Palaeospinacidae.

Williams, ME (1998), A new specimen of Tamiobatus vestustus (Chondrichthyes, Ctenacanthoidea) from the Late Devonian Cleveland Shale of Ohio. J. Vert. Paleontol. 18: 251-260. Cladoselechida.

Woodward, AS (1906), On a new specimen of the chimeroid fish, Myriacanthus paradoxus, from the Lower Lias near Lyme Regis (Dorset). Quart. J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 52: 1-4. Myriacanthoidei.

Zangrl, R (1969), Bandringa rayi: a new ctenacanthoid shark from the Pennsylvanian Essex fauna of Illinois. Fieldiana Geol. 12: 157-169. Bandringidae.

Zangrl, R (1981), Chondrichthyes I: Paleozoic Elasmobranchii. in H-P Schultze & O Kuhn (eds.), Handbook of Paleoichthyology, vol. 3B, GV Verlag, 114 pp. Bandringidae; Chondrichthyes, Ctenacanthidae; Ctenacanthiformes; Euselachii, Menaspidae, Phoebodontidae; Symmoriida

Zangerl, R (1990), Two new stethacanthid sharks Stethacanthidae, Symmoriida) from the Pennsylvanian of Indiana, U.S.A.. Paleontographica Abt. A 213: 115-141. Symmoriida.

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