Pholidota: pangolins. Eomanis, Manis
Range: from the Early Eocene, presently restricted to Africa & South Asia.
Phylogeny: Traditional morphology: Eutheria ::: Epitheria + * (this phylogeny is no longer used by current workers) ; Molecular phylogeny (current paradigm): Ferungulata ::: Carnivora + *
Characters: 1.5-35 kg; skull smooth; vision poor; jugal absent; zygomatic arch incomplete; hearing weak; ears & nostrils can be sealed; palate long; tongue extremely long and muscular, based on pelvis and most posterior pair of ribs (tongue is longer than body); dentary narrow, weak & blade-like; angular & coronoid processes absent; dorsally directed conical process on anterior of mandible; teeth absent; tail long; forelimbs strong, bearing digits with long, curved unguals; all limbs with 5 digits; pyloric portion of stomach with keratinous "teeth"; gastroliths usually present; large, overlapping "scales" formed from agglutinated hair; scales absent & ordinary fur present ventrally; pyloric part of their stomach is thickened and muscular, with odd keratinous spines projecting into its interior; arboreal & terrestrial forms; tail usually broad & heavy; arboreal forms with "semi-prehensile" tails; tails & anal glands used in defense; rely largely on smell for food location; knuckle-walkers; nocturnal insectivores.
Links: Animal Diversity Web: Family Manidae; Pholidota; Mammalogy Image Archives- Pholidota; Pholidota Giant Pangolin or Scaly Anteater Skull; Pholidota; China Species Information System (Chinese & English); Mammalia/PHOLIDOTA/pholidota_01.html">Mammalia- Pholidota - Schuppentiere German); Order Pholidota- Pangolins or Scaly Anteater; ordo Pholidota; Pangolins - Order Pholidota; Pholidota - Luskouni (Czech); Pholidota [incl. Palaeanodonta]; Palaeanodonta [Basal Pholidota-]; PHOLIDOTA; MANIDAE- Pangolins, or Scaly Anteaters Walker's Mammals of the World); Mammalia/PHOLIDOTA/pholidota_01.html">Mammalia- Pholidota - Schuppentiere; species of Manis; 动物搜索 in English & a very good site); ScienceDaily Magazine- Your Source For The Latest Research News Wikipedia article); Ящеры (Pholidota) - MavicaNET; Luskouni - Pholidota; Galerie - Savci.upol.cz nice collection of images). ATW031215.
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