The Vertebrates References

Ichthyosauria: References

Abbreviated Dendrogram
Diapsida ╞═Younginiformes └─┬─┬?─Thalattosauria │ └─○Ichthyopterygia/Ichthyosauria │ ├─Utatsusaurus │ └─┬─Ichthyosauria │ └─┬─Merriamosauria │ └─┬─Euichthyosauria │ └─┬─Parvipelvia │ ├─Eurhinosauria │ └─┬─Thunnosauria │ └─Ophthalmosauria └─┬─Lepidosauromorpha └─Archosauromorpha
Ancestral Ichthyosaurs
Mixosaurs and Cymbospondyls
Shastasaurs and basal Euichthyosaurs
Temnodontosaurs and Eurhinosaurs


Arkhangelsky, M.S. (1998): On the ichthyosaurian genus Platypterygius. Paleont. J., 32(6): 611–615, 2 figs.; Moscow.

Callaway, JM (1997), A new look at Mixosaurus, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles. Academic Press.  pp. 45-59.
Grippidia, Ichthyosauria, Mixosaurus

Callaway, JM (1997a), Ichthyosauria: Introduction, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles. Academic Press,  pp. 3-16.
Ichthyosauria, Ichthyosaurus, Mixosaurus,, Temnodontosaurus.

Camp, CL (1980), Large ichthyosaurs from the Upper Triassic of Nevada. Palaeontographica Ser. A. 170: 139-200.
Californosaurus, Shastasauria, Shonisaurus, Shonisaurus popularis.

Glendening, J. (2009). 'The World-Renowned Ichthyosaurus': A Nineteenth-Century Problematic and Its Representations. Journal of Literature and Science Volume 2, No. 1 (2009): 23-47 pdf.

Hilton, R.P. 2003. Dinosaurs and other Mesozoic Reptiles of California, University of California Press, Berkely & Los Angeles

Kear, B. P., Boles, W. E. & Smith, E. T., 2003: Unusual gut contents in a Cretaceous ichthyosaur. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 270, S206-S208.

Lawrence, J.D. 2008. A total evidence analysis of the evolutionary history of the thunnosaur ichthyosaur. Degree: MS, Geology, 2008, Bowling Green State University pdf.

Lydekker, R. (1888): Note on the classification of the Ichthyopterygia with a notice of two new species. Geol. Mag., 3: 309–314; London.
Shastasaurs and basal Euichthyosaurs

Maisch M.W., & Matzke A.T. 2000. The Ichthyosauria. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie) 298: 1-159, pdf ,
Besanosaurus, Brachypterygius, Callawayia/Metashastasaurus, Ophthalmosaurus, Platypterygius

Maisch M.W., & Matzke A.T. 2006. The Braincase of Phantomosaurus neubigi (Sander, 1997), an Unusual Ichthyosaur from the Middle Triassic of Germany. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26(3):598-607.

Massare, J.A. & Callaway, J.M. 1990. The affinities and ecology of Triassic ichthyosaurs GSA Bulletin; April 1990; v. 102; no. 4; p. 409-416 abstract.

McGowan, C. (1972): The distinction between latipinnate and longipinnate ichthyosaurs. - Life Sci. Occ. Papers, R. Ont. Mus., 20: 1-8; Toronto.
Shastasaurs and basal Euichthyosaurs

McGowan, C (1991), Dinosaurs, Spitfires and Sea Dragons. Harvard Univ. Press, 365 pp.

McGowan, C. 1994. A new species of Shastasaurus (Reptilia: Ichthyosauria) from the Triassic of British Columbia: the most complete exemplar of the genus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Volume 14, Issue 2. June 1994 , pages 168 - 179

McGowan, C (1995), A remarkable small ichthyosaur from the Upper Triassic of British Columbia, representing a new genus and species. Can. J. Earth Sci. 32: 292-303.

McGowan, C (1997), A transitional ichthyosaur fauna, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles. Academic Press,  pp. 61-80.
Ichthyosaurus,Shastasauria, Temnodontosaurus, Thunnosauria.

McGowan, C. and Motani, R. 2003. Ichthyopterygia. Handbook of Paleoherpetology, Part 8. Munich: Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil.

Merriam, J.C. 1908 Triassic Ichthyosauria with special reference to the American forms. Mem.University California, 1 (1): 1–155,
Shastasaurs and basal Euichthyosaurs

Motani, R (1997), Temporal and spatial distribution of tooth implantation in ichthyosaurs, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles. Academic Press. pp. 81-103.
Cymbospondylus, Grippidia, Ichthyopterygia, Merriamosauria, Mixosaurus, Shastasauria, Utatsusaurus

Motani, R (1999), On the evolution and homologies of ichthyopterygian forelimbs. J. Vert. Paleontol. 19: 28-41.

Motani, R. 1999b. Phylogeny of the Ichthyopterygia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 19: 473-496.
Ancestral Ichthyosaurs, Cymbospondylus

Motani, R. 1999c. The Skull and Taxonomy of Mixosaurus (Ichthyopterygia), Journal of Paleontology Vol. 73, No. 5 (Sep., 1999), pp. 924-935

Motani, R. (2000). "Rulers of the Jurassic Seas". Scientific American 283 (6).
Ancestral Ichthyosaurs

Motani, R, N Minoura & T Ando (1998), Ichthyosaurian relationships illuminated by new primitive skeletons from Japan. Nature 393: 255-257.
Grippidia, Ichthyopterygia, Utatsusaurus.

Ryosuke Motani, Bruce M. Rothschild and William Wahl, Jr. , 1999, Large eyeballs in diving ichthyosaurs. Nature 402, p.747 (16 December 1999) pdf.

Nicholls, E. L. & Manabe, M. 2001. A new genus of ichthyosaur from the Late Triassic Pardonet Formation of British Columbia: bridging the Triassic-Jurassic gap. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 38, 983-1002.

Nicholls, E. L. & Makato, M. 2004, Giant ichthyosaurs of the Triassic - a new species of Shonisaurus from the Pardonet Formation (Norian: Late Triassic) of British Columbia, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 24(4):838-849
Shonisaurus, Shonisaurus sikanniensis

Sander, PM (1997), The paleogeography of Shastasaurus, in JM Callaway & EL Nicholls (eds.), Ancient Marine Reptiles. Academic Press,  pp. 17-43.
Californosaurus, Cymbospondylus, Mixosaurus, Shastasauria, Thunnosauria

Sander, P.M. 2000. Ichthyosauria: their diversity, distribution, and phylogeny. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 74, 1-35.

Sander P.M., Chen X., Cheng L., Wang X. (2011). Claessens, Leon. ed. "Short-Snouted Toothless Ichthyosaur from China Suggests Late Triassic Diversification of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs". PLoS ONE 6 (5): e19480. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019480. online
Shastasaurs and basal Euichthyosaurs, Shastasauria, Shastasaurus, Shastasaurus liangae, Shastasaurus sikanniensis

Shang, Q.-H. and Li, C. 2009. On the occurrence of the ichthyosaur Shastasaurus in the Guanling Biota (Late Triassic), Guizhou, China. Vertebrate PalAsiatica 47:178-193.pdf

Storrs, G. W., M. S. Arkhangel'skii and V. M. Efimov. 2000. Mesozoic marine reptiles of Russia and other former Soviet republics. pages 187-210 In Benton, M. J., M. A. Shiskin, D. M. Unwin and E. N. Kurochkin, (eds.), The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Ophthalmosaurus, Platypterygius

von Huene, F. (1922): Die Ichthyosaurier des Lias und ihre Zusammenhänge. – VI+114 pp., 22 pls.; Berlin (Gebr. Borntraeger).
Shastasaurs and basal Euichthyosaurs

von Zittel, K.A. , Eastman, C.R. (edited & revised), (1932) Textbook of Paleontology, vol.2, Macmillan & Co.

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