The Vertebrates References

Afrotheria References

Abreviated Dendrogram
Eutheria │ └─Afrotheria ├─Chrysochloroidea ├─Macroscelidea └─┬─Tubulidentata └─Paenungulata ├─Hyracoidea └─┬─Sirenia └─Proboscidea


Asher, Robert J.; Bennet, Nigel and Lehmann, Thomas. 2009 "The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution," BioEssays 31(8):853

Asher, RJ, MC McKenna, RJ Emry, AR Tabrum & DG Kron 2002), Morphology and relationships of Apternodus and other extinct, zalambdodont placental mammals, Bul. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. #273: 117 pp.

Carroll, RL (1988), Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, WH Freeman & Co., 698 pp.

MacPhee, RDE & MJ Novacek (1993), Definition and relationships of Lipotyphla, in FS Szalay, MJ Novacek & MC McKenna [eds.], Mammal Phylogeny: Placentals, Springer 2: 13–31.

Mouchaty, SK, A Gullberg, A Janke, & U Arnason, 2000), Phylogenetic position of the Tenrecs (Mammalia: Tenrecidae) of Madagascar based on analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Echinops telfairi, Zool. Scripta 29: 307-317.

Nowak, Ronald, 1991, Walker's Mammals of the world, Fifth Edition (two vols.), Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press;
Afrotheria, Macroscelidea

Nowak, RM (1999) Walker's Mammals of the World 6th ed.), Johns Hopkins Univ. Press: 2vv, 1629 pp.  

Seiffert, Erik, 2007. "A new estimate of afrotherian phylogeny based on simultaneous analysis of genomic, morphological, and fossil evidence". BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: 13. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-224. PMC 2248600. PMID 17999766. (online)
Afrotheria, Macroscelidea

Shoshani, J & MC McKenna (1998), Higher taxonomic relationships among extant mammals based on morphology, with selected comparisons of results from molecular data. Mol. Phylog. & Evol. 9: 572-584. Afrotheria

Thewissen, JGM, EM Williams, LJ Roe & ST Hussain (2001), Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls. Nature 413: 277-281. Sirenia.

Vaughan, TA, JM Ryan & NJ Czapelewski (2000), Mammalogy 4th ed.), Saunders, 564+ pp.

Wible, J. R., G. W. Rougier, M. J. Novacek, and R. J. Asher. 2009. The eutherian mammal Maelestes gobiensis from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia and the phylogeny of Cretaceous Eutheria. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 327: 1-123. pdf

checked ATW040822, revised MAK120319