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Lamarck, Jean Baptiste: (1744-1829), French naturalist, coined the word "zoology", the first to seriously study invertebrates, also developed the first well thought out theory of organic evolution. Applied the "Great Chain of Being" in a dynamic manner, to describe evolution. He recognized that organisms change in their environment, but he did not accept the concept of extinction. Lamarck argued that species evolved through time by passing on traits they acquired to their offspring; the "inheritance of acquired characteristics". This predecessor and rival theory to Darwin's descent through natural selection remained popular, especially in France and (in modified form) Soviet Russia well into the early 20th century. More

Lyell, Charles: A 19th-century scientist, principal architect of uniformitarianism and a founding father of modern geology, helping to transform the discipline into an empirical, testable science. Lyell argued that the geology of Earth is shaped by gradual processes, such as erosion and sedimentation, and further developed Hutton's theories. Lyell's notion was that Earth has been shaped by the same forces and processes that operate today, acting continuously over very long periods of time, was a major breakthrough in a world that still widely believed in a literal genesis. His landmark work, Principles of Geology, greatly influenced the young Charles Darwin. Darwin and Lyell later became close friends. Despite claims that he hated religion, was in fact deeply troubled by Darwin's work and forced to reconcile his view of special creation with evolution Hhe came to accept evolution after Darwin published On the Origin of Species. (PBS evolution Glossary; EvoWiki)

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