Metazoa References

Mollusca References

Abbreviated Dendrogram
Spiralia ├─Brachiopoda └─┬─Annelida │ └─Mollusca ├─Aculifera │ ╞═Mattheviidae │ ├─Aplacophora │ └─Polyplacophora └─Conchifera ╞═Tryblidiida (Monoplacophora) │ └─Cephalopoda ╘═Helcionelloida ╞═Rostroconchia │ └─Scaphopoda ├─Bivalvia └─Gastropoda


Adamkewicz, SL, MG Harasewych, J Blake, D Saudek & BCJ Bult 1997), A molecular phylogeny of the bivalve mollusks. Mol. Biol. Evol. 14: 619-629.
Bivalvia, Bivalvia Cladogram

Aksarina, NA (1968) New Data on the Geology and Guide Fossils of Western Siberia, Vol. 3 Univ. of Tomsk.

Bandel, K (1988), Repräsentieren die Euomphaloidea eine natürliche Einheit der Gastropoden? Mitteilungen Geol.-Paläontol. Inst. Univ. Hamburg, 67: 1–33..

Barnes, RD (1980), Invertebrate Zoology, Saunders College  [more recent edition Invertebrate Zoology by EE Ruppert and RD Barnes.
Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Basommatophora, Basommatophora, Actophila, Stylommatophora

Bergström, J (1989), The Origin of Animal Phyla and the New Phylum Procoelomata, Lethaia 22: 259-69.

Bieler, R (1992), Gastropod phylogeny and systematics. Ann. Rev. Ecol. & Syst., 23: 311-338.

Brasier, WD (1989) Towards a biostratigraphy of the earliest skeletal biotas, in JW Cowie & MD Brasier [eds.] The Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary, Clarendon Press.  

Brasier, WD (1989a), Sections in England and their Correlation, in JW Cowie & MD Brasier [ eds.] The Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary, Clarendon Press.

Campbell, DC (2002), Paleontological and molecular evidence on Bivalve phylogeny - Evolutionary Paleobiology and Paleoecology of the Bivalvia - abstract.
Bivalvia Cladogram

Chase, R (2002), Behavior & Its Neural Control in Gastropod Molluscs. Oxford Univ. Press Chap.1 The Gastropods. This on-line chapter gives a very readable overview of gastropod biology, systematics, and the main groups. 
Pulmonata, Basommatophora, Stylommatophora.

Clarkson, ENK (1993) Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution [4th ed.]. Chapman and Hall, 434 pp.
Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Stylommatophora,

Colgan, DJ, PWF Ponder & PE Eggler (2000), Gastropod evolutionary rates and phylogenetic relationships assessed using partial 28S rDNA and histone H3 sequences. Zool. Scripta 29: 29-63 - uses DNA sequences to determine the evolutionary relationship between all the major groups of gastropods. Does not support the division of the Gastropods into two major clades (Eogastropoda and Orthogastropoda) review.

Curry, D & NJ Morris (1967), Chapter 13 Mollusca: Amphineura, Monoplacophora and Gastropoda, in The Fossil Record. Geol. Soc. Lond.  pp. 423-430.

Dzik, J (1982), Larval development and relationships of Mimospira - a presumably hyperstrophic Ordovician gastropod. Geol. Fören. Stockholm Förhand. 104: 231-239.

Dzik, J (1991), Is fossil evidence consistent with traditional views of the early metazoan phylogeny? in AM Simonetta & S Conway Morris eds.), The Early Evolution of Metazoa and the Significance of Problematic Taxa. Cambridge Univ. Press.

Dzik, J (1993), Early Metazoan Evolution and the Meaning of its Fossil Record, in MK Hecht et al. (eds.), Evolutionary Biology. Plenum Press 27: 367 - a very interesting article on early Metazoan evolution, with a few pages on Molluscs, including some very good illustrations on early molluscs and proto-molluscs (e.g. Halkeria). Agrees with Runnegar and Pojeta and disagrees with Yochelson on the status of early forms like Aldanella

Dzik, J (1994), Evolution of 'small shelly fossils' assemblages. Acta Pal. Pol. 39: 247 - 313.

Dzik, J. 2010. Brachiopod identity of the alleged Late Cambrian monoplacophoran ancestors of cephalopods. Malacologia 52, 97-113.

Engeser, T & F Riedel (1997), Fossil Scaphopoda.

Frýda, J (2001), On the evolution of larval development in Middle Paleozoic Gastropoda, in L Salvini-Plawen, J Voltzow, H Sattmann & G Steiner (eds.), WCM 2001 Abstracts. Unitas Malacologica, Vienna - abstract.

Futuyma, D (1997), Evolutionary Biology [3rd ed.] Sinauer Assocs.

Giribet, G & CS Carranza 1999), Point Counter Point. What can 18S rDNA do for Bivalve phylogeny? J. Mol. Evol. 48: 256-258.
Bivalvia Cladogram.

Giribet, G., Okusu, A., Lindgren, A.R., Huff, S.W., Schrödl, M., and Nishiguchi, M.K. (May 2006). "Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: Monoplacophorans are related to chitons". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (20): 7723–7728. Bibcode 2006PNAS..103.7723G. doi:10.1073/pnas.0602578103. PMC 1472512. PMID 16675549.
Phylogeny - competing hypotheses, Phylogeny - Recent developments

Giribet, G & W Wheeler (2002), On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invert Biol. 121: 271-324 Abstract.
Bivalvia Cladogram.

Golikov, AN & YIS Tarobogatov (1975), Systematics of prosobranch gastropods. Malacologia 15:185 - 232.  An important paper on Gastropod systematics which challenged the established canon of Knight et al. However the taxonomic inflation of many groups is rather strange.
Bellerophontiforms, Bellerophontida, Metoptomatidae, Patellogastropoda

Goloboff, P. A.; Catalano, S. A.; Marcos Mirande, J.; Szumik, C. A.; Salvador Arias, J.; Källersjö, M.; Farris, J. S. (2009). "Phylogenetic analysis of 73 060 taxa corroborates major eukaryotic groups". Cladistics 25 (3): 211. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2009.00255.x.
Phylogeny - Recent developments

Haszprunar, G (1988), On the origin and evolution of major gastropod groups, with special reference to the Streptoneura. J. Moll. Stud. 54: 367-441  An important paper on gastropod systematics using cladistic analysis. Replaces both the Archaeogastropoda with a number of distinct orders, and rejects the old three-fold division of Prosobranchia, Opisthobrancha, and Pulmonata.

Haszprunar, G (1988), A preliminary phylogentic analysis of the streptoneurous gastropods, in Prosobranch Phylogeny, Malacol. Rev. Supplement 4: 7-17. A short cladistic revision of the Prosobranchia.
Sinuopeidae, Patellogastropoda,

Haszprunar, G. (2000), Is the Aplacophora monophyletic? A cladistic point of view. Amer. Malac. Bull. 15: 115-130.
Phylogeny, Solenogastres.

Henry, J.; Okusu, A.; Martindale, M. (2004). "The cell lineage of the polyplacophoran, Chaetopleura apiculata: variation in the spiralian program and implications for molluscan evolution". Developmental biology 272 (1): 145–160. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.04.027. PMID 15242797.
Phylogeny - Recent developments

Hickman, CS (1988), Archaeogastropod evolution, phylogeny and systematics: a re-evaluation in Prosobranch Phylogeny, Malacol. Rev. Supp. 4: 17-34. Argues that the "Archaeogastropoda" is an invalid taxon and should be discarded.
Gastropoda, Gastropod Systematics.  

Jacobs, D. K.; Wray, C. G.; Wedeen, C. J.; Kostriken, R.; Desalle, R.; Staton, J. L.; Gates, R. D.; Lindberg, D. R. (2000). "Molluscan engrailed expression, serial organization, and shell evolution". Evolution & Development 2 (6): 340–347. doi:10.1046/j.1525-142x.2000.00077.x. PMID 11256378.
Phylogeny - Recent developments

Knight, JB & EL Yochelson (1960), Monoplacophora, in RC Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part I. Mollusca.  Geol. Soc. Amer. and Kansas Univ. Press, 1: 77-84.

Knight, JB, LR Cox, AM Keen, RL Batten, EL Yochelson & R Robertson (1960), Systematic descriptions [Archaeogastropoda], In RC Moore (ed.), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part I. Mollusca. Geol. Soc. Amer. and Kansas Univ. Press, 1: 169-310.  Gives important coverage of many gastropod (and a few paragastropod and tergmyan) families, although xdated as regards phylogeny. 
Helcionellidae, Coreospiridae, Mimospirida, Gastropoda, Sinuopeidae, Bellerophontiforms, Bellerophontida, Euomphalida, Metoptomatidae, Patellogastropoda.

Kocot, K.M. and K.M. Halanych. (2009) Investigation of molluscan phylogeny using nuclear protein-coding genes. The Malacologist 53: 18-20. www
Phylogeny - competing hypotheses

Kocot, K.M., J.T. Cannon, C. Todt, M.R. Citarella, A.B. Kohn, A.Meyer, S.R. Santos, C. Schander, L.L. Moroz, B. Lieb, K.M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature. 477:452-457 Supplementary information
Phylogeny - Recent developments

Kröger, B., Vinther, J. and Fuchs, D. (2011), Cephalopod origin and evolution: A congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules. Bioessays, 33: 602–613. doi: 10.1002/bies.201100001
Phylogeny - Recent developments, A possible scenario of molluscan evolution;

Lindberg, DR (1988), The Patellogastropoda, in Prosobranch Phylogeny, Malacol. Rev. Suppl 4: 35-63. - a cladistic revision of the Patelloida, and definirtion of the new order Patellogastropoda. 

Linsley, RM (1978), Locomotion rates and shell form in the gastropoda. Malacologia 17: 193-206.

Linsley, RM & WM Kier (1984), The Paragastropoda: A proposal for a new class of Paleozoic Mollusca. Malacologia 25: 241-254.
Paragastropoda, Pelagiellida Mimospirida, Paragastropod Cladogram.

Macpherson, JH & CJ Gabriel (1962), Marine Molluscs of Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
Bivalvia, Bivalve descriptive terms, Gastropoda, Basommatophora, Actophila.

Mizzaro-Wimmer, M & L Salvini-Plawen 2001), Praktische Malakologie: Beiträge zur vergleichend-anatomischen Bearbeitung der Mollusken: Caudofoveata bis Gastropoda – "Streptoneura".  Springer, 188 pp.

Moore, RC [ed.] (1960), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part I. Mollusca, vol. 1. Amphineura, Polyplacophora, Scaphopoda, Monoplacophora, Archaeogastropoda.

Moore, RC (ed.) (1969), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part N. Mollusca 6. Bivalvia. 2 Volumes.

Moore, RC [ed.] (1971), Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part N. Mollusca 6. Bivalvia. Oysters (Volume 3).

Moore, RC, CG Lalicker & AG Fischer (1952), Invertebrate Fossils, McGraw Hill Book Co., 766 pp.
Bivalvia, Bivalve descriptive terms, Bivalve Gill Morphology, Stylommatophora

Morris, PJ (1991), Functional morphology and phylogeny: an assessment of monophyly in the Kingdom Animalia and Paleozoic nearly-planispiral snail-like mollusks. Unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation., Harvard University. 406 pp.

Nielsen, C. 2001. Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press. Oxford.

Parker, SP (ed.) (1982), Synopsis and classification of living organisms. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 2 vv.
Bivalvia Cladogram, Solenogastres.

Passamaneck, Y.; Schander, C.; Halanych, K. (2004). "Investigation of molluscan phylogeny using large-subunit and small-subunit nuclear rRNA sequences.". Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 32 (1): 25–38. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.12.016. PMID 15186794.
Phylogeny - Recent developments

Paul, J (2001), Suprageneric classification of class Gastropoda The Natural History Museum, London.
Mimospirida, Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Basommatophora, Actophila, Stylommatophora.

Peel, JS (1991), Functional morphology of the Class Helcionelloida nov., and the early evolution of the Mollusca, in AM Simonetta & S Conway Morris eds.), The Early Evolution of Metazoa and the Significance of Problematic Taxa. Cambridge Univ. Press, pp.157-177 - a criticism of the old "Monoplacophora" theory, argues for two distinct classes (= clades) of early molluscs, the Tergyma and the Helcionelloida, along with a diagnosis of each, and a suggested description of the autoecology (lifestyle) of the latter. Also argues that cephalopods evolved from Helcionelloids. 
Phylogeny, Helcionelloida 

Peel JS (2004), Pinnocaris and the origin of scaphopods. Acta Pal. Pol. 49: 543–550.

Pojeta, J, (1980), Molluscan Phylogeny. Tulane Stud. Geol. & Paleontol., 16, 55-80

Pojeta, J (1987), Class Pelecypoda, in AH Cheetham & AJ Rowell (eds.) Fossil Invertebrates. Blackwell Scientific Publs.  
Bivalve Gill Morphology

Pojeta, J., 2000 Cambran Pelecypoda (Mollusca), American Malacological Bulletin 15: 157-166

Pojeta, J & B Runnegar (1976), The paleontology of the rostrochonch molluscs and the early history of the Phylum Mollusca. U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper #968, 88 pp.

Pojeta, J, B Runnegar, NJ Morris & ND Newell (1972), Rostrochonchia: A new class of bivalved mollusks. Science 177: 264-266. 

Ponder, WF & DR Lindberg (1996), Gastropod phylogeny -- challenges for the 90's, in J Taylor (ed.), Origin and Evolutionary Radiation o f the Mollusca. Oxford Univ. Press, pp. 135-154.   

Ponder, WF & DR Lindberg (1997), Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 119: 83-265. - an important paper on gastropod systematics via cladistic analysis. Introduces a number of important clades - including Eogastropoda, Orthogastropoda, Apogastropoda, etc
Gastropod Systematics, Euomphalida, Patellogastropoda

Ponder, W. F. and Warén, A. 1988. Classification of the Caenogastropoda and Heterostropha - a list of the familial-group names and higher taxa. Malacological Review, Supplement, 4: 288-326. - gives a list of all recent and fossil families and subfamilies, along with synonyms

Porter, S. M. (Jun 2007). "Seawater chemistry and early carbonate biomineralization". Science 316 (5829): 1302–1301. . doi:10.1126/science.1137284. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 17540895
Phylogeny - Recent developments

Raup, DM (1962), Computer as aid in describing form in gastropod shells. Science 138: 150-152. -
shell morphology

Raup, DM (1966), Geometric analysis of shell coiling: general problems. J. Paleontol. 40: 1178-1190. -
shell morphology

Rollins, H. B., and Batten, R. L., 1968, A sinus-bearing Monoplacophoran and its role in the classification of primitive molluscs. Paleontology, 11 (1):132-140

Rosenberg, G (1992), Encyclopedia of Seashells, Five Mile Press. - non-technical book which devotes a page to every extant family of sea shells. A single representative species is described, and accompanied by a photograph, and there is also a description of the family as a whole

Runnegar, Bruce, 2002 "Stem group bivalvia: where to begin?" - Paper No. 236-3 abstract

Runnegar, B (2002), Body building in Halkieria and comparisons with chitons and other possible stem-group molluscs". Palaeontological Association 46th Annual Meeting, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, December 15-18, 2002 abstract

Runnegar, B & PA Jell (1976) Australian Middle Cambrian molluscs and their bearing on early molluscan evolution. Alcheringa 1: 109-138 - describes a rich assemblage or early-middle Cambrian species, also includes a taxonomic review of early molluscs
Helcionelloida, Helcionellidae

Runnegar, B. and Pojeta, J. 1974 Molluscan phylogeny: the paleontological viewpoint, Science 186, no.4161 pp.311-7 - seminal and very readable article that introduces the Cyrtosoma-Diasoma hypothesis. 
Phylogeny, Scaphopoda.

Runnegar, B. & J Pojeta (1992), The earliest bivalves and their Ordovician descendants. Am. Malacol. Bul. 9: 117-22.

Salvini-Plawen L (1980), A reconsideration of systematics in the Mollusca. (phylogeny and higher classification) Malacologia 19: 249-278. A suggested phylogenetic coverage from the neontological perspective.  www
Phylogeny, Pulmonata, Actophila

Sasaki, Takenori, 1998. Comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the recent Archaeogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda), The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Bulletin No.38 - an on-line paper on "Archaeogastropod" relationships

Saunders, W. B., Work, D.M., and Nikolaeva, S.V., 2002 Shell geometry in Paleozoic ammonoids: a confluence of function, phylogeny, external factors and luck - abstract -
shell morphology

Scheltema, AH & DL Ivanov (2002), An aplacophoran postlarva with iterated dorsal groups of spicules and skeletal similarities to Paleozoic fossils. Invert. Biol. 121: 1-10. Abstract.

Schneider, JA (2001), Bivalve systematics in the 20th century. J. Paleontol., 75: 1119-1127.

Sigwart, J.D., and M.D. Sutton. 2007. Deep molluscan phylogeny: Synthesis of palaeontological and neontological data. Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) B (Biological sciences) 274 (1624): 2413–2419. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.0701. PMC 2274978. PMID 17652065. For a summary, see "The Mollusca". University of California Museum of Paleontology., 274: 2413-2419. www suppl
Phylogeny - competing hypotheses, Phylogeny - Recent developments

Simone, L. R. L. (2009). Comparative morphology among representative of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal Protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia . 49(32), 457. pdf
Phylogeny - competing hypotheses

Smith, A. G. 1960. Amphineura. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part I. Mollusca 1, pp. 41-76. Geological Society of America and Kansas University Press, Colorado and Kansas.

Smith, S. A., N. G. Wilson, F. E. Goetz, C. Feehery, S. C. S. Andrade, G. W. Rouse, G. Giribet, C. W. Dunn. 2011. Resolving the evolutionary relationships of molluscs with phylogenomic tools. Nature. doi:10.1038/nature10526.
Phylogeny - Recent developments

Solem, A (1978), Classification of land Mollusca, in V Fretter & J Peake (eds.) Pulmnonates 2A, Systematics, Evolution, and Ecology Academic Press, London. 

Stasek C., 1972. The molluscan framework. In: Florkin, M., Scheer, B.T. (Eds.), Chemical Zoology, vol. 7, pp. 1–44.
Phylogeny - Stasek's Aculifera - Polyplacophora - Conchifera model

Steiner, G & H Dreyer (2002), Cephalopoda and Scaphopoda are sister taxa ­ an evolutionary scenario, Jahresversammlung der DZG in Halle 2002 Abstracts Unravelling evolutionary history using phylogenetic analyses. 
Helcionelloida, Scaphopoda.

Steiner, G & H Dreyer (2003), Molecular phylogeny of Scaphopoda (Mollusca) inferred from 18S rDNA sequences: support for a Scaphopoda–Cephalopoda clade. Zool. Scripta, 32: 343–356.

Steiner, G and Salvini-Plawen, L 2001, Invertebrate evolution (Communications arising): Acaenoplax - polychaete or mollusc? Nature 414, 601 - 602.

Sutton, M. D., Briggs, D. E. G., Siveter, David J. and Siveter, Derek J. 2001. An exceptionally preserved vermiform mollusc from the Silurian of England. Nature 410, 461-463.

Sutton, M. D., Briggs, D. E. G., Siveter, David J. and Siveter, Derek J. 2001. Acaenoplax - mollusc or polychaete? response to Steiner, G. and Salvini-Plawen, L. Nature 414, 602.

Telford MJ, & Budd GE, 2011, Invertebrate Evolution: Bringing Order to the Molluscan Chaos. Current Biology, Volume 21, Issue 23, Pages R964-R966,

Thomaz, D, A Guiller, & B Clarke (1996), Extreme divergence of mitochondrial DNA within species of pulmonate land snails. Proc R. Soc. (Lond.) Ser. B 263: 363-368.

Vaught, KC (1989), A Classification of the Living Mollusca. American Malacologists, 195 pp.
Pulmonata, Basommatophora, Actophila, Stylommatophora,

Vinther, J.; Sperling, E. A.; Briggs, D. E. G.; Peterson, K. J. (2011). "A molecular palaeobiological hypothesis for the origin of aplacophoran molluscs and their derivation from chiton-like ancestors". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.1773. published ahead of print October 5, 2011, 1471-2954 online, suppl
Phylogeny - competing hypotheses, Phylogeny - Recent developments

Wade, C. M., Evolutionary Relationships in the Pulmonate Land Snails and Slugs - at (former site)

Wade, CM. & PB Mordan (2000), Evolution within the gastropod molluscs; using the ribosomal RNA gene cluster as an indicator of relationships. J. Molluscan Stud. 66: 565-570.
Basommatophora, Systellommaophora.

Wade, CM, PB Mordan & BC Clarke (2001), A phylogeny of the land snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Proc. R. Soc. (Lond.): Biol. Sci. 268: 413-422. - confirms the monophyletic composition of the Stylommatophora by an analysis of 1,460 nucleotides of the ribosomal RNA gene-cluster from 104 species

Wägele, J.; Letsch, H.; Klussmann-Kolb, A.; Mayer, C.; Misof, B.; Wägele, H. (2009). "Phylogenetic support values are not necessarily informative: the case of the Serialia hypothesis (a mollusk phylogeny)". Frontiers in zoology 6 (1): 12. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-6-12. PMC 2710323. PMID 19555513. www
Phylogeny - Recent developments

Wagner, PJ 1999), Phylogenetics of the earliest anisostrophically coiled gastropods. Smithsonian Contribs. Paleobiol.  No. 88, 132 pp.  Cladistic analysis of early Paleozoic gastropods, rejects the phylogeny and classification of Knight et al (the Treatise) and shows that all the early Pleurotomarioidea can all be included under the Euomphalina and Murchisoniina. abstract


 Wagner, P. J. [no date]. Systematic Paleontology of the Earliest Gastropods (Including Family and Genus Level Stratigraphic Ranges and Synonyms - includes cladograms and data matrixes used in the Smithsonian paper. See especially Outgroup and Outgroups
Helcionelloida, Helcionellidae, Paragastropoda, Pelagiellida, Mimospirida, Paragastropod Cladogram, Gastropoda, Sinuopeidae, Bellerophontiforms, Bellerophontida, Euomphalida, Rostroconchia

Wagner, PJ (2001), Gastropod phylogenetics: progress, problems and implications. J. Paleontol. 75: 1128-1140.
Paragastropoda, Pelagiellida, Mimospirida, Bellerophontiforms, Bellerophontida, Euomphalida,

Waller, TR (1998), Origin of the molluscan class Bivalvia and a phylogeny of major groups, in PA Johnston & JW Haggart (eds.), An Eon of Evolution; Paleobiological Studies Honoring Norman D. Newell. Univ. Calgary Press, pp. 1-45  more

Walossek, D. & Müller, K. J. 1998. Cambrian 'Orsten'-type arthropods and the phylogeny of Crustacea. In Fortey, R. R. & Thomas, R. (eds.): Arthropod relationships, Systematics Association Special Volume 55, 139-153. Chapman & Hall, London.
A possible scenario of molluscan evolution;

Wanninger, A. & G Haszprunar 2001), Chiton myogenesis: perspectives for the development of larval and adult muscle systems in molluscs. J. Morphol. (in press). Abstract

Webers, G. F. & Yochelson, E. L. (1989). "Late Cambrian molluscan faunas and the origin of the Cephalopoda". In Crame, J. A.. Origins and Evolution of the Antarctic Biota. 47. Geological Society, London: Special Publications. pp. 29. DOI:10.1144/GSL.SP.1989.047.01.04.
A possible scenario of molluscan evolution;

Wenz, W (1938), Gastropoda. Bonntraeger, 240 pp.

Wilson, N.; Rouse, G.; Giribet, G. (2010). "Assessing the molluscan hypothesis Serialia (Monoplacophora+Polyplacophora) using novel molecular data.". Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 54 (1): 187–193. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.07.028. PMID 19647088.
Phylogeny - Recent developments

Winnepenninckx, B; Backeljau, T; De Wachter, R (December 1, 1996). "Investigation of molluscan phylogeny on the basis of 18S rRNA sequences". Molecular Biology and Evolution 13 (10): 1306–1317. PMID 8952075.
Phylogeny - Recent developments

Yochelson, EL (1969), Stenothecoida, a proposed new class of Cambrian Mollusca. Lethaia 2:.49-62 - argues that the Stenothecoidids are not monoplacophorans, but a distinct class of brachiopod-like bivalved molluscs

Yochelson, E.L. 1978, An alternative approach to the interpretation of the phylogeny of ancient mollusks, Malacologica, 17 (2): 165:191 - a thought-provoking critique of conventional paleontological interpretations of molluscan evolution. Argues for the existence of many discrete molluscan classes. Argues that tiny Cambrian forms like Aldanella are non-molluscan - more
Phylogeny, Helcionelloida, Pelagiellida, Scaphopoda.  

Yochelson, E. L., Flower, R. H. & Webers, G. F. (1973) The bearing of the new Late Cambrian monoplacophoran genus Knightoconus upon the origin of Cephalopoda. Lethaia 6, 275–309
A possible scenario of molluscan evolution;

contact us

page by M. Alan Kazlev, checked ATW050713
page uploaded 28 December 2002, last modified MAK120604 Creative Commons Attribution