Palaeos Palaeos Arthropoda
Metazoa References

Arthropoda: References

Abbreviated Dendrogram




Akam, M & M Averof (1995), Hox genes and the diversification of insect and crustacean body plansNature, 376: 420-423.  Myriapoda.  

Barnes, RD (1968), Invertebrate Zoology [2nd ed.].  Saunders.  743 pp.

Graham E. Budd, Stem-group arthropods from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet fauna of North Greenland - abstracts
referred to in Panarthropoda

Conway Morris, S., 1993: The fossil record and early evolution of the Metazoa. Nature, vol. 361, 21 January, pp. 219-225
referred to in Arthropoda, Panarthropoda, and Crustacea

Dohle, W (1998), Myriapod-insect relationships as opposed to an insect-crustacean sister group relationship, in RA Fortey & RH Thomas [eds.], Arthropod Relationships.  Systematics Assoc. Spec. Vol. 55: 305-315.  Myriapoda.  

web page The early history and phylogeny of the chelicerates - by Jason A. Dunlop and Paul A. Selden (abstract of journal paper) that appeared in Arthropod Relationships, pp. 237-245, R. A. Fortey & R. H. Thomas (eds.), Systematics Association Special Volume Series 55 (1997)
referred to in Phylogeny and Basal Arthropoda

Gregory D. Edgecombe, ed. 1998, Arthropod Fossils and Phylogeny, Columbia University Press, New York. 347 pages - external link book review
referred to in Phylogeny

Edgecombe, GD & G Giribet (2002), Myriapod Phylogeny and the Relationships of Chilopoda, in J Llorente Bousquets & JJ Morrone [eds.], Biodiversidad, Taxonomía y Biogeografía de Artropodos de México: Hacia una Síntesis de su Conocimiento.  Prensas de Ciencias, Univ. Nac. Auton. Méx. 3: 143-168. Myriapoda.  

Friedrich, M D Tautz (1995), rDNA phylogeny of the major extant arthropod classes and the evolution of the MyriapodaNature, 376: 165-167.  Myriapoda.  

Geoffrey Fryer, Arthropod Polyphyly : a well supported hypothesis - abstracts
referred to in Phylogeny

Giribet G, Carranza S, Baguna J, Riutort M, Ribera C - First molecular evidence for the existence of a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade.- Mol Biol. Evol. 1996 Jan;13(1):76-84
referred to in Arthropoda and Mandibulata

available on-line PDF document Giribet, G., Edgecombe, G. D. & Wheeler, W. C., 2001: Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature, Vol. 413, pp. 157-161
referred to in Arthropoda, Uniramia, and Pancrustacea

Giribet and Ribera 2000, A review of arthropod phylogeny: new data based on ribosomal DNA sequences and direct character optimization. Cladistics 16: 204-231
referred to in Phylogeny

Printed Reference Hou & Bergström, 1997: Arthropods of the Lower Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, southwest China. --Fossils & Strata, Number 45, 22nd December 1997, pp. 1-116
referred to in Arthropoda, Panarthropoda, basal Arthropods, Euarthropoda, Arachnomorpha, and Crustacea, Chengjiang

Printed Reference Hwang, U. W., Friedrich, M., Tautz, D., Park, C. J. & Kim, W., 2001: Mitochondrial protein phylogeny joins myriapods with chelicerates. Nature, Vol. 413, pp. 154-157
referred to in Arthropoda

Kraus, O (1998) Phylogenetic relationships between higher taxa of tracheate arthropods, in in RA Fortey & RH Thomas [eds.], Arthropod RelationshipsSystematics Assoc. Spec. Vol. 55: 295-303.  Myriapoda.  

Gabriele Kühl, & Jes Rust, 2009, Devonohexapodus bocksbergensis is a synonym of Wingertshellicus backesi (Euarthropoda) – no evidence for marine hexapods living in the Devonian Hunsrück Sea, Organisms Diversity & Evolution Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 215–231 online

S. M. Manton, 1974, Arthropod phylogeny - A modern synthesis, Journal of the Zoological Society of London, 171:111-130
referred to in Arthropoda and Phylogeny, Atelocerata, and Uniramia

Manton, S.M. 1977. The Arthropoda: Habits, Functional Morphology, and Evolution. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
referred to in Arthropoda, Phylogeny, Mandibulata

Claus Nielsen, "The Phylogenetic position of the Arthropoda" - abstracts

Parker, Sybil P. (ed.), 1982: Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 2 vols.
referred to in Crustacea

Popadic, A., D. Rusch, M. Peterson, B. T. Rogers, T. Kaufman. 1996. Origin of the arthropod mandible. Nature, 380:395.
referred to in Atelocerata

Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin, and C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships reveled by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463 (7284): 1079-1083. doi:10.1038/nature08742

Robison, RA (1990), Earliest known uniramous arthropodNature 343: 163-164.  Myriapoda.  

Shu, D.-G., Conway Morris, S., Han, J., Chen, L., Zhang, X.-L., Zhang, Z.-F., Liu, H.-Q., Li, Y. & Liu, J.-N., 2001: Primitive deuterostomes from the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Lower Cambrian, China). Nature, Vol. 414, pp. 419-424
referred to in basal Arthropoda

Snodgrass, R. E. 1938. Evolution of Annelida, Onychophora and Arthropoda. Smithsonian Misc.. Coll. 138: 1-77
referred to in Mandibulata

Tiegs, O. W. and Manton, S.M. 1958 "The evolution of the Arthropoda," Biological Reviews 33: 255-337.
referred to in Arthropoda and Mandibulata

Telford, M. J., and R. H. Thomas. 1995. Demise of the Atelocerata? Nature 376:123-124.
referred to in Atelocerata

Turbeville, JM, DM Pfeifer, KG Field & RA Raff (1991), The phylogenetic status of arthropods, as inferred from 18S rRNA sequencesMol. Biol. Evol. 8: 669–686.  Myriapoda.  

Dieter Waloszek and Klaus Müller, 1998, "Early Arthropod Phylogeny in Light of the Cambrian 'Orsten' Fossils", Chapter Five, Arthropod Fossils and Phylogeny, Columbia University Press, New York. 347 pages -
referred to in Mandibulata

Wheeler, W. C., Whiting, M., Wheeler, Q. D. & Carpenter, J. M., 2001: The phylogeny of the extant hexapod orders. --Cladistics: Vol. 17, #2, pp. 113-169
referred to in Uniramia

"An Arthropod Phylogeny Based on Fossil and Recent Taxa" by Matthew Wills, Derek Briggs, Richard Fortey, Mark Wilkinson, and Peter Sneath, Chapter Two, Gregory D. Edgecombe, ed. 1998, Arthropod Fossils and Phylogeny, Columbia University Press, New York. 347 pages -
referred to in Mandibulata and Arachnomorpha

Heather M. Wilson, "Phylogenetic Position of the Palaeozoic Arthropleurideans" - Palaeontological Association 44th Annual Meeting, University of Edinburgh, 17-20 December 1999, ABSTRACTS
referred to in Uniramia


Giribet G, Carranza S, Baguna J, Riutort M, Ribera C - First molecular evidence for the existence of a Tardigrada + Arthropoda clade.- Mol Biol Evol 1996 Jan;13(1):76-84     Use of rDNA and rRNA sequencing to determine phylogenetic relationships.  The results are surprising.  From the abstract:

The results show that arthropods are monophyletic. Tardigrades represent the sister group of arthropods (in parsimony analyses) or they are related with crustaceans (distance analysis and PRN).  Arthropoda are divided into two main evolutionary lines, the Hexapoda + Crustacea line (weakly supported), and the Myriapoda + Chelicerata line. The Hexapoda + Crustacea line includes Pentastomida, but the internal resolution is far from clear. The Insecta (Ectognatha) are monophyletic, but no evidence for the monophyly of Hexapoda is found. The Chelicerata are a monophyletic group and the Myriapoda cluster close to Arachnida.

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