Brachiopoda Linguliformea


(Early Cambrian to Recent)

Brachiopoda ├─Linguliformea │ ├─Paterinida │ └─Lingulata │ ├─Lingulida │ └─Acrotretida │ ├─Discinida │ └─Acrotretoidea └─┬─Craniiformea └─Rhynchonelliformea
Lingula anatina

Lingula anatina, from Open Cage.

Editor's note: Palaeos is a huge project, and hence updating it is beyond the scope of one person. For tis reason, and pending more original material, I have decided to cheat by copying (with minor editing, from Wikipedia MAK120107

In the revised classification of Brachiopods used in the current edition of the Treatise, Linguliformea is one of the three subphyla and major clades of brachiopods. Like the other two groups, they range from the Cambrian to Recent. These inarticulate brachiopods diversified and flourished during the Cambrian and Ordovician, but declined thereafter, with only a single order, the extant Lingulida, making it into the late Paleozoic.

Linguliforms have adductor and oblique muscles, but no diductor muscles. The anus is located at the side of the body. The pedicle is a hollow extension of the ventral body wall. Posterior body wall separates dorsal and ventral mantles. Their shells are usually made up of apatite (calcium phosphate), however rare cases have calcite or aragonite shells.

Characters (from Williams & Holmer 2002): Shell laminar, organophosphatic, attached by a pedicel developing as an outgrowth of the posterior body wall; gut U-shaped with both mouth and anus opening into mantle cavity.

There are two classes: Lingulata and Paterinata


(only a few of the many genera and species are shown)

Linguliformea [Lingulata] │ i. s.: Oepikites │ Discinida │ Siphonotretida ├─┬─Schizambon │ ├─Paterinidae [Paterinata, Paterinida] │ │ ├─Paterina │ │ └─Micromitra Meek 1873 │ │ ├─✶M. sculptilis Meek 1873 │ │ └─M. modesta Lochman 1940 │ └─┬─Acrothele │ └─Linguloidea [Lingulida] │ ├─Lingula │ │ ├─L. anatina │ │ ├─L. lingua │ │ ├─L. subparallela │ │ └─L. yunnanensis │ ├─Lingulellotreta Koneva in Gorjansky & Koneva 1983 [Lingulellotretidae] │ │ └─L. malongensis Rong 1974 [=Lingulepis malongensis] │ ├─Obolus apollinis │ └─Lingulella chengjiangensis └─Acrotretida | i. s.: Prototreta └─Acrotretidae ├─Acrotretinae │ ├─Angulotreta Palmer 1954 │ │ └─✶A. triangularis Palmer 1954 │ └─Linnarssonella Walcott 1902 │ ├─✶L. girtyi Walcott 1902 │ ├─L. elongata Bell 1941 │ └─L. tubicula Robson, Nowlan & Pratt 2003 ├─Neotretinae │ ├─Neotreta Sobolev 1976 │ │ ├─✶N. tumida Sobolev 1976 │ │ └─N. davidi Popov, Berg-Madsen & Holmer 1994 │ └─Rhondellina Rowell 1986 │ ├─✶R. dorei Rowell 1986 │ ├─R. albertensis Robson, Nowlan & Pratt 2003 │ └─R. karatauensis Koneva 1992 └─Linnarssoniinae ├─Opisthotreta Palmer 1954 │ └─✶O. depressa Palmer 1954 ├─Stilpnotreta Henderson & MacKinnon 1981 │ └─✶S. magna Henderson & MacKinnon 1981 └─Picnotreta Henderson & MacKinnon 1981 ├─✶P. debilis Henderson & MacKinnon 1981 ├─P. karakichiensis Holmer et al. 2001 ├─P. lophocracenta Robson & Pratt 2001 └─P. robusta Holmer, Popov & Lehnert 1999

✶ Type species of genus indicated


Boxshall, G. A., & A. G. Humes. 1988. A new genus of Lichomolgidae (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) associated with a phoronid in Hong Kong. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology Series 54 (6): 301-307. Braddy, S. J., P. A. Selden & D. N. Truong. 2002. A new carcinosomatid eurypterid from the Upper Silurian of northern Vietnam. Palaeontology 45 (5): 897-915.
Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: A combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539-562.
Holmer, L. E., C. B. Skovsted & A. Williams. 2002. A stem group brachiopod from the Lower Cambrian: Support for a Micrina (halkieriid) ancestry. Palaeontology 45 (5): 875-882.
Kozlowski, R. 1948. Les graptolithes et quelques nouveaux groupes d'animaux du Tremadoc de la Pologne. Palaeontologica Polonica 3: I-XII, 1-235.
Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.
Robson, S. P., G. S. Nowlan & B. R. Pratt. 2003. Middle to Upper Cambrian linguliformean brachiopods from the Deadwood Formation of subsurface Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. Journal of Paleontology 77 (2): 201-211.
Williams, A., & L. E. Holmer. 2002. Shell structure and inferred growth, functions and affinities of the sclerites of the problematic Micrina. Palaeontology 45 (5): 845-873.
Zhang, Z., J. Han, X. Zhang, J. Liu & D. Shu. 2004. Soft-tissue preservation in the Lower Cambrian linguloid brachiopod from South China. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49: 259-266.

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