Palaeos: Palaeos Paleozoic
Paleozoic Era References

References & Notes



Andrews, SM & TS Westoll (1970), The postcranial skeleton of Eusthenopteron foordi Whiteaves. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. 68: 207–329.

Andrews, SM & TS Westoll (1970a), The postcranial skeleton of rhipidistian fishes excluding Eusthenopteron. Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin. 68: 391–489 (1970). 

Clack, JA (2002), Gaining Ground: the Origin and Evolution of Tetrapods.  Indiana Univ. Press, 369 pp.

Draganits, E, B Grasemannt & SJ Braddy (1998), Discovery of abundant arthropod trackways in the ?Lower Devonian Muth Quartzite (Spiti, India): implications for the depositional environmentJ. Asian Earth Sci. 16:109-118. 

Dudley, R (1998), Atmospheric Oxygen, giant Paleozoic insects and the evolution of aerial locomotor performanceJ. Exper. Biol. 201: 1043-1050.  

Klok, CJ, RD Mercer & SL Chown (2002), Discontinuous gas-exchange in centipedes and its convergent evolution in tracheated arthropodsJ. Exper. Biol. 205: 1019-1029.  

Orr, PJ, DEG Briggs, DJ Siveter & DJ Sivter (2000), Three-dimensional preservation of a non-biomineralized arthropod in concretions in Silurian volcanoclastic rocks from Herefordshire, EnglandJ. Geol. Soc. Lond. 157: 173-186.  

Stanley, SM (1998), Earth System History.  WH Freeman & Co., 615 pp.


[1] We use the Russian-Kazakhian stages until the ICS gets around to finally giving these Early Cambrian ages some names.  As of this date (041118), the ICS Early Cambrian Epoch is undivided.

[2]  We use chaotic in its mathematical sense, meaning that the end state of a closed system is extremely sensitive to initial conditions.  The classical example is from meteorology, in which the occurrence of a hurricane is supposedly determined by the wing beat of a butterfly six months earlier and ten thousand miles away. 

[3]  These peculiar names are English corruptions of French corruptions of Micmac (Amerind) place names.  Escuminac and Miguasha actually have very pedestrian meanings: "Lookout Point"  and "Red Cliff," respectively, thus proving that the original inhabitants were just as unimaginative as the French and Tory settlers who replaced them.