Devonian Period
Devonian Period

References & Notes


deCarvalho, MdGP & J Moody (2000), A Middle Devonian Trilobite Assemblage from Venezuela. Amer. Mus. Nov. No. 3292, 15 pp.

Ellwood, BB, SL Benoist, A El Hassani, C Wheeler, RE Crick (2003), Impact ejecta layer from the Mid-Devonian: possible connection to global mass extinctions. Science 300: 1734-1737.

Friday A & DS Ingram [eds.] (1985), Origin and Development of Land Flora and Fauna, in The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Life Sciences, p.329

Hladil, J & P Pruner (2001), Anatomy of the Kacak-related magnetosusceptibility zones (Devonian) based on carbonate deposits at medium rate of sedimentation. Geophy. Res. Abstr. 3: 1203.  WWW

Janvier P (1996), Early Vertebrates, Oxford, 393 pp. Lochkovian.

Kaiser, S, TR Becker, D Brice, JP Nicollin, M Legrand-Bain, SZ Aboussalam, A El Hassani & H Nübel (2004), Sedimentary succession and neritic faunas around the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary at Kheneg Lakahal south of Assa (Dra Valley, SW Morocco), in Devonian of the Western Anti Atlas: Correlations and Events.  Doc. Inst. Sci., Rabat 19: 69-74.

Joachimski, MM, R. vanGeldern, S Breisig, W Buggisch & J Day (2004), Oxygen isotope evolution of biogenic calcite and apatite during the Middle and Late Devonian. Int. J. Earth Sci. (Geol. Rundsch.) 93:542–553.

Mannik P, VV Menner, RG Matukhin & V Kurss (2002) Silurian and Devonian strata on the Severnaya Zemlya and Sedov Archipelagos Russia). Geodiversitas 24: 99-122.

Marss, T, MVH Wilson & R Thorsteinsson (2002), New thelodont (Agnatha) and possible chondrichthyan (Gnathostomata) taxa established in the Silurian and Lower Devonian of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. 51: 88-120.

Mergl, M & D Massa (2005), A new giant discinoid brachiopod from the Lower Devonian of Algeria. Acta Pal. Pol. 50: 397-402.

McKerrow, WS, C MacNiocaill & JF Dewey (2000), The Caledonian Orogeny Redefined. J. Geol. Soc. (Lond.) 157: 1149-1154.  WWW.

Pyle, LJ, MJ Orchard, CR Barnes & ML Landry (2003), Conodont biostratigraphy of the Lower to Middle Devonian Deserters Formation new), Road River Group, northeastern British Columbia. Can. J. Earth Sci. 40: 99–113.

Sandberg, CA, JR Morrow & W Ziegler (2002), Late Devonian sea-level changes, catastrophic events, and mass extinctions in C Koeberl & KG MacLeod [eds.], Catastrophic Events and Mass Extinctions: Impacts and Beyond, Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper #356, pp. 473–487.

Spacek, P, J Kalvoda, J Hladil & R Melichar 2002), Stratigraphic reconstruction of tectonically disturbed carbonate sequences along the western margin of the Brno batholith: a need of multidisciplinary approach. Bull. Czech Geol. Survey 77: 201-215.

Tarlo, LBH (1964), Psammosteiformes (Agnatha): a review with descriptions of new material from the Lower Devonian of Poland. I. General part. Paleontol. Pol. 13: 1-135.

Wrzolek, T (2002), Devonian history of diversity of the rugosan Cyathaxonia fauna. Acta Pal. Pol. 47: 397-404.


 [1] We might expect to see rather significant, but opposite, grade effects in both Northern Europe and the American Southwest. Late Devonian paleogeography is a little unclear, but it is likely that northern Europe was pressing hard against the flank of Laurentia.  

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