Mesozoic Era
Mesozoic Era References

Mesozoic References

The Mesozoic
   Marine Reptiles


Benton, MJ & DAT Harper (1997), Basic Paleontology. Longman, 342 pp.

Blake, DB (2000), The class Asteroidea Echinodermata): Fossils and the base of the crown group. Amer. Zool. 40:316–325.  WWW

Blake, DB & BS Kues (2002), Homeomorphy in the Asteroidea (Echinodermata); a new Late Cretaceous genus and species from Colorado. J. Paleontol. 76: 1007–1013. WWW.

Cox, B., RJG Savage, B Gardiner & D Dixon (1988), The Simon and Schuster Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Creatures : A Visual Who's Who of Prehistoric Life. Simon & Schuster, 312 pp.

DeBraga, M. & RL Carroll (1993) The origin of mosasaurs as a model of macroevolutionary patterns and processes. Evolutionary Biology 27: 245-322.

Creisler, B (2000) Mosasauridae Translation and Pronunciation Guide iNet.

Farinacci, A & R Manni (2003), Roveacrinids from the northern Arabian Plate in SE Turkey. Turkish J. Earth Sci. 12: 209-214. WWW.  

Jenkyns, HC & PA Wilson (1999), Stratigraphy, paleoceanography, and evolution of cretaceous Pacific guyots: relics from a greenhouse Earth. Am. J. Sci. 299: 341–392. 

Lehmann, C, DA Osleger, IP Monta├▒ez, W Sliter, A Arnaud-Vanneau & J Banner (1999), Evolution of Cupido and Coahuila carbonate platforms, Early Cretaceous, northeastern Mexico. GSA Bull. 111: 1010–1029. WWW.

McKerrow, WS [ed.] (1978), The Ecology of Fossils: An Illustrated Guide. Duckworth.

McKinney, FK & PD Taylor (2001), Bryozoan generic extinctions and originations during the last one hundred million years. Paleontol. Elec.

Miller, KG, PJ Sugarman, JV Browning, MA Kominz, JC Hern├índez, RK Olsson, JD Wright, MD Feigenson & W Van Sickel (2003), Late Cretaceous chronology of large, rapid sea-level changes: Glacioeustasy during the greenhouse world. Geology 31: 585–588.

Tweet, J (2004) Thescelosaurus! iNet.

Williston, SW (1898) Mosasaurs, The University Geological Survey of Kansas, Volume IV, Paleontology, Part V, pp. 81-347


[1]  The "tube feet" of sea urchins look like very short tentacles. You can see them moving between the spines of any live urchin. The tube feet are arranged in strips which run from the top of the urchin (apical disk) to the bottom. These strips are called ambulacral zones. The tube feet are connected to the urchin's internal water vascular system. The armor plates of the ambulacral zones are known, naturally enough, as ambulacral plates. The plates between the ambulacral zones are interambulacral plates. The ambulacral plates of many modern urchins are compound. That is, they are completely fused. The arrangement of ambulacral plates is an important tool of echinoid taxonomy. This is all explained, with figures and much additional information, at Skeletal morphology of regular echinoids from the Natural History Museum (London). The invertebrate part of the NHM site, unlike the awful dinosaur section, is an informative resource and worth browsing at length.

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